Saturday, August 22, 2020

How Indian Cinema Evolved over the Years Essay Example for Free

How Indian Cinema Evolved throughout the Years Essay A hundred years back on this date, India’s first film Raja Harishchandra was discharged. In the course of recent years, our film and its features have advanced and how!! The legend From mooch to macho From a cumbersome mustached Raj Kapoor during the 40s to a six-pack parading, butt-exposing John Abraham now, the Bollywood saint has had a significant makeover. The 50s was the period of strategy acting with any semblance of Dilip Kumar, while during the 60s, Rajesh Khanna and Dev Anand encapsulated sentiment on screen. After Khanna’s master kurtas and cushy hairtop, Amitabh Bachchan carried the furious youngster into the image during the 70s and 80s with Zanjeer, Deewar and Agneepath, additionally bringing to the fore, chime bottoms and side consumes. The 90s was the hour of the darling young men Shah Rukh Khan, Aamir Khan and Salman Khan moving in fascinating remote regions. Presently, the Bollywood saint isn't limited by sort or style and fits into each shape. He is a looker, chocolatey, test and all out paisa vasool, read Ranbir Kapoor and Imran Khan. The courageous woman From weak to breathtaking In the early decades, the champion in Indian film had just a single goal throughout everyday life, that of being a sati-savitri, who never looked past her family and spouse. The kitchen was her cover, and she exemplified everything great. Through the 1940s, 50s and 60s, courageous women, for example, Mala Sinha, Meena Kumari, Madhubala, Nanda and Asha Parekh administered these jobs. It was uniquely during the 80s and 90s that she advanced as a solid character (Rekha in Khoon Bhari Mang, 1988), (Meenakshi Sheshadri in Damini, 1993). While in the mid 2000s, she was as yet the coy young lady, she figured out how to carry on with her life on her footing like Rani Mukerji in Kabhie Alvida Naa Kehna. Furthermore, the courageous woman today is the hot, uber cool lady who thinks about minimal more than her own life. Approach to go young lady! The miscreant From frightening to smooth From the standard parcel of underhanded town zamindars, runners, killers, attackers, dacoits and psychological oppressors, the overwhelming Bollywood lowlifess have gotten uncommon in new age film. Along these lines the customary scoundrel, Loin, Shakal, Mogambo, Dr Dang and Badman, has passed on a characteristic demise. The wigged, stogie smoking symbols played by any semblance of Pran, Prem Chopra, Amrish Puri, have cleared a path for shrewd and in some cases more-cute than-the-saint sort of scalawags. Show A-Saif Ali Khan (Omkara) and Shah Rukh Khan (Don). No lines are drawn now and dark characters have got dim with lead on-screen characters playing rivals in films, nearly supplanting the committed scalawags. This denoted the finish of regularly resounding famous jokes like â€Å"Kitne aadmi the?† and â€Å"Saara sheher mujhe Loin ke naam se jaanta hain.† The maa Rona-dhona to supercool From the God dreading and unattractive mum to a gathering monstrosity, moms in Bollywood have made some amazing progress since 1930s. While Nargis in Mother India (1957) played a mother who experienced hardships and attempted to raise her offsprings, Nirupa Roy during the 70s got interchangeable with white saris and a melancholic look. At that point came Reema Lagoo, with her bindi and sindoor, a perfect white collar class Indian mother in Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988) and Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), who attempted to be a companion to her child. Be that as it may, presently, moms are the uber cool ladies who are prepared to acknowledge even same-sex couples, for example, Kirron Kher in Dostana (2008). What's more, presently there are mother who drink and move at weddings, ala Dolly Walia in Vicky Donor (2012). The thing young lady No-no to unquestionable requirements The moving young lady advanced from the Cabaret enchantress, the free-energetic banjaran, the arousing concubine to moving flirts down the middle saris. During the 40s and 50s, Cuckoo Moray, hotted up the screen with her honest appeal. The 50s saw Vyjayanthimala charm the crowd in melodies, for example, Chad Gayo Papi Bichua in Madhumati (1958) in ghagra cholis, and garbage silver gems. Helen administered the 60s and 70s, developing in an intense symbol with sensational troupes. The 80s saw the pattern of champions show up in thing numbers with Zeenat Aman in Qurbani (1980). Madhuri Dixit’s Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai turned into a definitive bother during the 90s. The thing young ladies of 2000s are provocative, not reluctant to show skin and love to act shy, be it Malaika Arora Khan in a mid-riff uncovering choli moving on a train or Katrina in Sheila Ki Jawani. The entertainer Funny face to frontman The humorist during the 40s, was the chunky man with interesting outward appearances, whose minor nearness made crowds chuckle. During the 1950s, the lean Johnny Walker broke that pattern and figured out how to win hearts with his droll amusingness. Kishore Kumar, basically an artist, reclassified satire by utilizing his melodies like Meri Pyari Bindu (Padosan 1968) as components of fun in films. In any case, it was Mehmood, with his bordered hair and immaculate discourse conveyance who turned into the lord of parody during the 1970s. The following huge thing in parody was Johnny Lever, who left crowds in parts with his non-verbal communication and discoursed in films like Raja Hindustani (1996) and Dulhe Raja (1998). Presently, it’s the saints †Akshay Kumar (Hera Pheri), Ajay Devgn (Golmaal) who are serving as comics. The companion Sidekick to one side hand man The side kick or hero’s closest companion, each Bollywood film has had one. The job could be that of a pleasant mate who gives lighthearted element to the film or that one jigari dost who remains with the legend through various challenges (as it were, battles for the saint and frequently kicks the bucket at long last). From the times of Mukri and Mehmood, who played the hero’s old buddy during the 1950s and 60s to the ebb and flow time where on-screen characters like Arshad Warsi and Sharman Joshi play as incredible characters as the legend himself, this depiction has had an ocean change. Mehmood in Humjoli (1970), for example, played a sidekick who carried the house down with his jokes, yet Arshad Warsi in the Munnabhai arrangement (2003/06) played the perfect Robin to Sanjay Dutt’s Batman, and got the absolute best lines in the movies. The sentiment Contact me-not to pre-marriage sex Romance in Bollywood abandoned intense to shy and back to indecent and striking. The quiet film, ‘A Throw of Dice’ (1929) saw on-screen character Seeta Devi kiss on-screen character Charu Roy. Post-freedom, during the 1940s, sentiment got traditionalist. The Cinematograph Act in 1952, called kissing on screen profane and sentiment became related with fastening hand and gazing into each other’s eyes. Kissing was appeared with two blossoms meeting up or bumble bees sucking nectar from blossoms. 1970s was Raj Kapoor’s period that took an enthusiasm back to sentiment with motion pictures, for example, Bobby (1973), Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978). It was the 90s that sentiment took an unadulterated and sweet structure the two blockbuster hits Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) Dilwale Duhaniya Le Jayenge (1995). Presently, during the 2000s, pre-marriage sex appeared in films like Salaam Namaste (2005) and Rockstar (2011), is viewed as c ool. The music Songs to suggestive tracks The 1930 and 40s, were characterized by nasal versions by any semblance of KL Saigal (Jab Dil Hi Tooth Gaya, Shahjahan, 1946) and Noorjehan. The 50s were about soul-calming tunes. Tunes like it Pyaar Huya Ekraar Huya (Shree 420 1952) or Jaane Woh Kaise Log The (Pyaasa 1957) became sagas. In any case, it was R D Burman, who without any assistance changed the course of Bollywood film music, and presented westernized tunes in tunes during the 60s. While 70s remained the time of a blend of delicate and quick numbers, the 80s turned Bollywood music on its head, as Bappi Lahiri got disco music. Disco Dancer (1982) denoted the start of a scope of high-on-clamor, low-on-verses melodies. The 1990s produced a few tremendously forgettable numbers, with the exception of melodic hits like 1942 a Love Story (1994), Saajan (1991). The 2000s have been the time of testing in this manner Sonu Nigam and Yo Honey Singh both discover place in a similar film. The exchanges Acting to peculiar Power-stuffed exchanges get the greatest seetis from the crowd, and why not. A film is frequently associated with its famous exchanges. Kaun kambakth bardasht karne ke liye peeta hai, from Devdas that’s a most loved even with the ‘daarubaaz’ of today. In any case, discoursed like Kitne aadmi the, and â€Å"Kuttey principle tera khoon pi jaunga† from Sholay, â€Å"Pushpa, I loathe tears† from Amar Prem and â€Å"Mere paas maa hai† from Deewar; have proceeded to get epic. During the 1990s, saints dazzled their woman love with exchanges. Hence came, â€Å"I love you Kkk Kiran† (Darr), â€Å"Bade bade shehron mein aisi chhoti baatein hoti rehti hain.† (DDLJ 1995). In 2000, particular exchanges, for example, Main apni most loved hoon (Jab We Met), Picture Abhi Baki Hai Dost (Om Shanti Om) are the successes among film buffs.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Is Community College Right for You

Is Community College Right for You Is Community College Right for You? Is Community College Right for You?With the costs of a four-year college education spiraling out of control, community colleges offer a much more affordable alternative for students.For a long time now, there’s been a pretty specific idea of what the American Dream looks like. You immigrate to America, you work hard, you save enough money to send your kids to college, and then they land themselves squarely in the upper middle class.But dreams change. Or maybe its reality thats changing instead. For one, the traditional four-year college is more expensive than ever and it’s not getting any cheaper. And while graduates will often be stuck with loads of student debt, the sorts of salaries that might allow prompt payment of that debt are getting harder and harder to find.That’s why it’s more important than ever to consider different options when it comes to transitioning from high school to the general workforce. One good option to consider? Community college.Why it’s a good ch oice.The experts we spoke to were all pretty enthusiastic about at least considering community college.“Community college is a great â€" and overlooked â€" option for students who want to save on college tuition,” explained Dr. Sean Carton, Chief Strategist at idfive (@idfive). “According to the American Association of Community Colleges, the average yearly tuition at a community college is $3,660 as opposed to the average cost of a year at a state university at in-state rates ($10,230).While you can pursue a two-year associate’s degree at a community college and then transfer to a four-year school to get your bachelor’s degree, you don’t have to: many people attend community college in order to knock out a substantial chunk of their required general education classes.“But you don’t have to be working towards an (eventual) bachelor’s degree to attend community college. Many community colleges offer two-year vocational programs that lead to employment in medicine (d ental hygienist, registered nurse, MRI technician, etc.), aviation (air traffic controller, avionics technician), the law (paralegal), science (lab technician, geological/petroleum field technician), and other professions that often pay over $50,000 per year.”Dr. Carton wasn’t the only one to suggest community colleges as an option for either eventually transferring to a four-year school or as an end to itself.“If high school graduates seek up-to-date occupational/technical certifications, diplomas or degrees, then a nearby, affordable community college is often the best choice they could make,” advised Timothy G. Wiedman. Wiedman is a retired professor of Management Human Resources at  Doane University (@DoaneUniversity)  and taught at a large community college for fifteen years before that.“For example, for folks who have mechanical skills and enjoy working with their hands, HVAC training can lead to jobs that pay well and are in demand in many parts of the country. But training for interesting ‘indoor’ jobs (e.g., pharmacy technicians, veterinary assistants, and many others) is also available. The range of possibilities at larger community colleges would surprise a great many people.“On the other hand, even if folks are interested in a four-year bachelors degree, investigating one of these two-year colleges can still make sense, since the majority of college-bound students live within commuting distance of a relatively inexpensive community college.“Completing a two-year transfer program locally while living at home and then transferring to a more expensive four-year school to complete a baccalaureate degree will often save a great deal of money. In most cases, the content of the completed ‘transfer’ coursework will be nearly identical.Further, the individual attention available to freshmen at a community college is often superior to the attention that students receive in large, 200-student sections of introductory courses taught at many major universities.In addition, lower-level courses at universities are often taught by young graduate students (i.e., teaching assistants) who may have limited teaching experience and are often carrying heavy graduate course-loads that might well be their primary concerns.”But we hear what you’re saying from the other side of the screen. You want to hear from someone with personal experience with community college. We’ve got you covered!“Brittany and I both choose to go to community college first so I think I can offer some great insight,” recounted Kelan Kline of  The Savvy Couple  (@TheSavvyCouple). “When we were applying to colleges we knew we wanted to save money and understand the actual value of what we were paying for. We both decided to go to community college first to knock out most of our general freshmen prerequisites.“The biggest driving factor was being able to save money. We both continued to live at home with our parents and commute to school. We picked a college close by with a great reputation for transferring credits to a four-year school. Brittany was able to get through her first two years of college for free with financial aid and I walked away with around $3,000 of student loans.”Full disclosure.If there were no advantages to a four-year college, they probably wouldn’t exist. Everyone would just go to community colleges. So what are the hypothetical downsides to community college?Dr. Carton offered some community college cons to consider:“Little to no ‘college experience.’ People often go part time and there’s usually no campus housing.“Risk of credits not transferring. If you have a school in mind you want to transfer into once you’ve finished community college, check with their admissions office first to see what will transfer.“You’ll enter a four-year school as an ‘outsider’ when others in your class are already established and have made friends.“Technical school credits usually aren’t t ransferable to a 4-year school.”OK, now it’s decision time.Decision time.Now you have a sense of the pros and cons to community college. That means it’s time to make your decision. Well, not necessarily right now. But before you go to college.“Visit the school and see what the programs are like at each school,” advised College Counseling Tutor Joann Elliott (@JoannCCTSTL). “Community college and trade school may have a shorter time commitment than the four-year, but you might find trade school has less traditional coursework and is more hands-on. The traditional four-year is well suited for those who like school and can dedicate themselves to the rigor and self-discipline that it takes to commit to a four (or more!) year time frame.Every school is different so start early. We started working with my nephew on trying to figure this out at the end of his sophomore year. We visited all types of schools and now as a junior he has a good idea of which option might fit his lea rning style and goals the best.”But there are choices to consider beyond whether you go to a community college or four-year university. One other possibility is trade school, as Elliot referenced.“Technical or trade schools are usually private institutions that train students for jobs in what are known as ‘The Skilled Trades,’ such as plumbing, auto mechanics, electrical, carpentry, etc.,” explained Dr. Carton.“Many technical schools also train students for jobs such as commercial driving, welding, and heavy equipment operation. Trade schools vary in price, but a degree usually will run you around $20-$30,000. This is obviously more expensive than a community college degree but many of the jobs these schools train students for are in high demand.”Consider taking a gap year.You might also find a reason to delay the start of your college career, regardless of which college you’re heading to.“A relatively new concept after high school is that of a gap year,” offered Elliot. “A gap year gives a student the opportunity to figure it out. They might achieve knowing themselves better by a variety of activities including travel abroad, volunteering, taking courses part-time, working, job shadowing, or a mix of all of the above.A couple of tips Id give people is to consider having a well-defined plan and structure to your gap year. Dont just say ‘Ill volunteer’ and then waste your year binging on Netflix and stuffing your face and letting time get away.I also recommend students apply to college when the time is right (in the fall) if they are a high school senior and then defer their enrollment if they decide on a gap year. This way if they decide the gap year isnt for them, they still can attend college with the rest of their peers.Regardless, if you do take a gap year you can bet the college admissions office will ask you how you spent your gap year.  Your gap year should be moving you forward, not wasting time. There are plenty of colleges that have structured gap year programs and there are websites to assist people looking for gap year options.”And then there’s another straightforward option.College isnt mandatory.“There is also always the option to start working,” explained Leslie H. Tayne Esq.(@LeslieHTayneEsq), Founder and Head Attorney at  Tayne Law Group  (@taynelawgroup). “While the number of jobs requiring a college degree continues to grow, there can still be a benefit to taking a job out of high school. You can also use this time to figure out what you enjoy doing and what you are good at doing and then decide to go to school. This can also give you time to save money to go to college.”At the end of the day, it’s going to be up to you to figure out what option is best for your specific situation. Hopefully, this input will help you choose that option. To learn more about how you can increase your future earning potential, check out these other posts and articles from OppLoans:10 College Majors That Will Get You Paid10 Tips to Help You Score That Big Promotion10 Skills You’ll Need in the Job Market of Tomorrow12 Careers With Great Entry-Level PositionsDo you have a   personal finance question youd like us to answer? Let us know! You can find us  on  Facebook  and  Twitter.  |  InstagramContributorsDr. Sean Carton is the Chief Strategist of  idfive (@idfive) where he helps clients understand the constantly changing intersections between design, marketing, communication, and technology through creative ideas and beautiful solutions. As the founder of one of Baltimores first web development firms in 1995, Sean is also the founding Dean of Design and Media at Philadelphia University. He has published articles in publications such as Wired, Revolution, Stim, and POV.  Seans work for clients has been recognized with numerous awards, including a Webby, One Show, Gold ADDY and the New York Art Directors Club.Joann Elliott (@JoannCCTSTL) is a licensed professional counselor (LPC ) in the state of Missouri. She has over 25 years of experience working with high school and college students as well as young adults. She currently has a private practice, College Counseling Tutoring, LLC, located in St. Louis. You can learn more about her practice and how to make appointments at Joann is also the author of When to Do What: A Step-by-Step Guide to the College Process  available on Amazon.Kelan and Brittany Kline aka The Savvy Couple  are two thriving millennials that are daring to live differently. They started their personal finance blog  in September 2016 to help others get money $avvy so they can live a frugal and free lifestyle. Brittany is a full-time 4th-grade teacher and Kelan runs The Savvy Couple full-time and works as a digital marketer. You can follow them here:  Facebook,  Twitter,  Pinterest, and  Instagram.Leslie H. Tayne, Esq.  (@LeslieHTayneEsq) has nearly 20 years’ experience in the practice area of consumer and business financia l debt-related services. Leslie is the founder and head attorney at  Tayne Law Group  (@taynelawgroup), which specializes in debt relief.After 13 years as a successful operations manager working at two different ‘Fortune 1000’ companies, Dr. Timothy G. Wiedman spent the next 28 years in academia teaching college courses in business, management, human resources, and retirement planning.  Dr. Wiedman recently took an early retirement from  Doane University (@DoaneUniversity), is a member of the Human Resources Group of West Michigan and continues to do annual volunteer work for the SHRM Foundation. He holds two graduate degrees in business and has completed multiple professional certifications.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Why Its Dangerous to Mix Bleach With Alcohol or Acetone

Mixing chemicals can be a bad idea, particularly if one of the chemicals is bleach. You may be aware household bleach gives off dangerous fumes when mixed with bases, such as ammonia, and acids, such as vinegar, but did you know its also risky to mix it with alcohol or acetone?  Bleach reacts with alcohol or acetone to form chloroform, a chemical that could knock you out and cause organ damage. Making Chloroform: The Haloform Reaction Chloroform is an example of a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen). Any of the halogens can participate in the reaction, except fluorine because its intermediate is too unstable. A methyl ketone (molecule with R-CO-CH3 group) is halogenated in the presence of a base. Acetone and alcohol are two examples of compounds that can participate in the reaction. The reaction is used industrially to produce chloroform, iodoform, and bromoform (although there are other reactions better for chloroform). Historically, its one of the oldest known organic reactions. Georges-Simon Serullas made iodoform in 1822 from reacting potassium metal in a solution of ethanol (grain alcohol) and water. Phosgene Many online sources mention the production of highly toxic phosgene (COCl2) from mixing bleach with alcohol or acetone. This is a chemical with practical applications, but may be best known as a deadly chemical weapon known to have an odor of musty hay. Mixing bleach with the other chemicals doesnt produce phosgene, however, chloroform breaks down into phosgene over time. Commercially available chloroform contains a stabilizing agent to prevent this degradation, plus it is stored in dark amber bottles to reduce exposure to light, which can hasten the reaction. How Mixing Could Occur While you wouldnt put bleach in a mixed drink, you might use it to clean up a spill or use it in a cleaning project with alcohol-containing glass cleaner. Acetone is found in pure form and in some nail polish removers. The bottom line: Avoid mixing bleach with anything except water. Chloroform can also result from disinfection of water using bleach. If the water contains high enough levels of reactive impurities, haloform and other carcinogenic chemicals may be produced. What Should I Do If I Mix Them? Chloroform has a sweet smell, very unlike that of bleach. If you mix bleach with another chemical and suspect a nasty fume was produced, you should: Open a window or otherwise air out the area. Avoid breathing in the gas.Leave at once until the vapor has had time to dissipate. If you feel faint or sick, be sure  another person is aware of the situation.Make certain children, pets, and other household members avoid the area until youre sure its okay. Usually, the concentration of chemicals is low enough that the amount of toxic chemical is low. However, if youre using reagent grade chemicals, like for a lab experiment to intentionally make chloroform, exposure warrants emergency medical attention. Chloroform is a central nervous system depressant. Exposure can knock you out, while high doses can lead to coma and death. Remove yourself from the area to avoid additional exposure! Also, please keep in mind that chloroform is known to induce tumors in rats and mice. Even low exposure isnt healthy. Chloroform: Fun Fact In books and movies, criminals use chloroform-soaked rags to knock out their victims. While chloroform has been used in some real-life crimes, its actually almost impossible to knock someone out with it. About five minutes of constant inhalation is needed to cause unconsciousness.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects of False Advertising Free Essays

Final Draft: The Effects of False Advertising Since the evolution of communication, media has been used to transmit informations to those willing to absorb it. Now, using powerful technologies such as television or the internet, information has been made accessible to people in every aspect of our daily lives, trying now to influence our choices more than ever before through advertisement. However, for the most, the goal behind advertising is personal profit. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of False Advertising or any similar topic only for you Order Now Therefore, the things we are exposed to in advertisements are not always true; they often tend to make people try being someone else’s idea of perfection while ignoring their own goals, and then conduct the consumers to deception. As for anything else, regulations on advertising do exist and are set by the Federal Trade Commission. But still, the problem of deceptive advertising does exist and is very persistent. My goal is to discuss the problem of deceptive advertising, by analyzing the strengths and the weaknesses of the FTC policies on advertising, the causes and effects of the problem and finally propose eventual solutions. Part I According to its official web site, ftc. gov, †The FTC deals with issues that touch the economic life of every American. It is the only federal agency with both consumer protection and competition jurisdiction in broad sectors of the economy,† (â€Å"About the Federal Trade Commission†) advertising included. As any institution of this scale, the FTC has very strong policies regarding the field it deals with. And acts such as false advertising can be heavily punished by the law, according to the FTC’s many laws and acts. However, regardless the numerous regulations that make the FTC’s strengths, it possesses a major weakness, since as far as the commission punishes unfair methods in advertising, and it fails to clearly define the word â€Å"unfair†. William F. Brown says in his article that the term â€Å"unfair methods† remains a generalization that the FTC must translate into usable policies, or standards by which specific methods can be judged (â€Å"the Federal Trade Commission and False Advertising II†). More specifically, it’s not always clear what would be included within the scope of the commission’s authority. This I would rather qualify unexisting part of the FTC policy, creates a gaping hole through which the problem of false advertising slips out. And I can truly see where this problem might apply: We can always see or hear from commercials all the benefits of a product, but, usually all the undesirable side effects are either written in very small caps at the bottom, so that no one can see or practically said at the speed of light, making them incomprehensible. From my consumer point of view, I can say that these are unfair methods; however, I can hardly see how the FTC is going to punish such an act, because in fact, everything about the product is there; regardless how the information is delivered. Part II Along with the FTC policy problem, there are more causes linked to the false advertising problem. For starter, I can tell from personal observations that America is a highly competitive country with a very capitalist nature. So much that in order to sell its products, companies will not hesitate to lie. For example, I still don’t know which phone company’s network is America’s fastest, especially when most claim to be (AT;T, Verizon, and t-mobile are really getting me confused. Then there is also the people mindset that is problematic. By that, I mean people tend to respond to feeling rather than reason; a commercial full of fallacies, for example, will get customers to buy a product simply by being entertaining. I believe that people’s response to advertisements in America is different because of the way they are implemented. For every 10 minutes of a television show, there are 5 minutes of advertisement; it gives a 1/3 ratio, meaning that more th an 30% of what people see on television are commercials. Even on radio stations and all over the internet there are commercials. What I’m saying is that over time, people stop noticing them, plus they become boring (think about how often you skip channels when an ad is on), that’s when marketers, in need of new ways to keep consumers attention on a product, use humor, entertainment, or make some commercials so stupid that they are rarely unnoticeable. Also, somebody desperately in need of change in his life is most likely to consider any possible option, even the most irrational. I will take the specific case of over the counter weight loss products, which has a huge market value at the moment: Approximately 100 billion dollars and expected to quadruple by 2015 (â€Å"Money Spent On Weight-Loss Programs in America Today†). A study from John Cawley (Cornell University), Rosemary Avery (Cornel University) and Matthew Eisenberg (Carnegie Mellon University) revealed that as of 2008, 68% of the American adult population was overweight, 33% obese, and that out of the majority of those trying to lose weight, 33. 9% had used over the counter weight loss products. The same study also showed that their spread is increasing because weight loss products are very loosely regulated and have a history of little efficacy and dangerous side effects (â€Å"The Effects of Advertising and Deceptive Advertising on Consumption†). One cause to that is: They are treated like food. Therefore, they are sold in supermarkets and pharmacies as well as through the internet without any need for manufacturers to prove benefits from the product, and bearing responsibilities for showing safety before marketing (food is assumed to be safe). It is then up to other governmental institutions to reveal the product to be unsafe. As a result, manufacturers of weight loss products have considerable slack in the marketing of these products. But truth is, they are very ineffective and can have severe side effects. Most of the weight loss products contain components such as phenylpropanolamine and ephedra, which have been identified by the FDA as increasing risks of stroke and cardiac events, as well as caffeine like products that increase the heart rate to give the impression of a faster metabolism. One big case was involving â€Å"Redux†, a drug that was designed for obese individuals, but had many people, including doctors, who were slightly overweight experience pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease, and neurotoxicity. Even without being an expert on this topic, I can accurately say that it’s impossible to lose weight without doing any kind of exercise; so the best these products can is ease the weight loss process. And as a matter of fact, if they were really working we would already see decreases in the overweight rate in the population. Unfortunately, not everybody understands the facts about advertising certain products, and people end up falling into deception by using a lot of them, ultimately affecting themselves as individuals and the population as a whole. In a long run I can hold it responsible for phenomena like emotional conflicts, because, in addition to lies, some advertising programs show a distorted image of reality which often become people’s new standard. For those influenced deeper, physical and mental problems occur, including bulimia, anorexia, the employment of harmful dietary plans, low self esteem, or thoughts of suicide. Unless the truth is revealed, some will continue to suffer. To my opinion, consumers could find products more attractive advertisements were done by normal people or without all the extra mind blowers. Other side effect to deceptive advertising is that continuously deceived consumers can actually turn their back to some product, and give negative feedback to their entourage. In some cases, it gets so bad that there are several individual law suits against a single company. Such mistrust into local products can go as far as bringing the economy down, especially if people decide to stop purchasing things of the same kind. Plus, manufacturing products that are not going to be consumed by a majority of the population is a waste of resources. Part III But like for every problem, there are a few solutions, or at least ways to lessen it. I believe the FTC needs to create a clear definition of the term â€Å"unfair methods† in its policy, so that every questionable, literally or implicitly false advertisement will be subject to revision, especially for those that can have an impact on health. In addition to this, if the public could try viewing advertising only as something to get one’s attention, and recognize the commercials playing on people’s insecurities, as well as those using humor and entertainment over facts to sell a product (According to the article â€Å"The Use Of Humor To Mask Deceptive Advertising† in The Journal of Advertising, â€Å"The content analysis of 238 humorous ads showed that 73. 5% of them had deceptive claims and 74. 5% of these claims were masked by humor†). Until either is accomplished, the negative effects of deceptive advertising will be felt by the vulnerable, people, and companies will still make profit. Conclusion Overall, it’s clear to see that the practice of false advertising is very persisting and influences several aspects of our live, either by getting people to by ineffective products then fall into deception or sometimes setting new standard in society by showing a distorted image of reality or beauty. However, I believe there is no better wall to this problem than self-defense. By that, I mean it is up to the people to truly open their mind and rely more on reason, to try finding and understanding more facts about the products on the market, so that their actions toward a product define new standards for manufacturers instead of the other way around. Work Cited â€Å"About the Federal Trade Commission. † Federal Trade Commission June 17, 2010Ftc. gov April 18 2011. Electronic. Brown, William F. The Federal Trade Commission and False Advertising II† The Journal of Marketing (1 July1947): 38-46. April 18, 2011. Print. Cawley, John, Rosemary Avery, and Matthew Eisenberg. â€Å"The Effects of Advertising and Deceptive Advertising on Consumption. † Economics Seminar Papers (30 July 2010): 3-11. Electronic. Mialon, Hugo M. and Paul H. Rubin. Economics, Law, and Individual Rights. 2008 New York: Taylor Francis Routledge, 2008. Electronic. â€Å"Money Spent on Weight Loss Programs in The USA Today. Worldometers Information 2009. Worldometers. info April 18 2011. Electronic. Mundy, Alicia. â€Å"Weight-loss Wars. † U. S. News World Report 15 February 1999, Vol. 126, Issue 6: 42. April 18, 2011. Electronic. Shabbir, Haseeb and Des Thwaites. â€Å"The Use of Humor to Mask Deceptive Advertising. † Journal of Advertising Summer 2007, Vol. 36 Issue 2: 75-85. April 18, 2011. Electronic. â€Å"What Is False Advertising? † Astra, Chan, Gurst, and Thomas P. C 2006,Aboutfalseadvertising. com. April 18, 2011. Electronic. How to cite The Effects of False Advertising, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches

Introduction to Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Human society is one of the most complicated aspects of the analysis regarding the relations between individuals, groups of individuals, and other entities that can be allocated in terms of resources of influence. Sociology of power emphasises the power relations between different communities and identifies the real influencing aspects that can alter a situation and the governance as well as the process of rule making.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this respect, it is necessary to dwell on the principles of rule making and different approaches to this process as related to the political rule and social power that can be considered the most important factors while assessing the influence of certain resources on the power, governing power, and resulting in the political regime. Different t heories of power distribution can be analysed with regard to the power of influence and the amount of resources to influence others or situation. Though history saw many examples of both approaches, pluralist and power elite, it is necessary to enlarge on the principles of power distribution in society in different periods of human civilization’s activity with regard to the economic situation and social movements. Moreover, the political power and the power of influence cannot be analysed as a single and the only aspect for the political regime establishment; these two concepts can be even opposed to each other or exist at the same period making one of those principles more important than other. In other words, the distribution of power in society cannot always be analysed in terms of theories of political rule making. Besides, the power to make political decisions does not always arise from the real objective interests and can be characterised by the interests and preference s of the political participants (Lukes 2005: 29). The pluralist approach is largely opposed to the power elite one in terms of ‘the business of rule’ and the process of rule making due to discrepancies in the regime’s strengths and the overall theoretical advantages of a definite approach. In other words, the pluralism approach highlights the equality of influencing powers regardless its real situation whereas the power of elite approach enables the most influential individuals to make rules. So, the main idea of the current paper consists in analysing and assessing the contradictions between the pluralist and power elite approaches taking into account the distribution of power in society and allocation of resources compared to the political power and the process of rule making.Advertising Looking for essay on natural sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Theories of Political Rule and Social Power Theo ries and the power elite approach.The power elite approach is mostly referred to as the one existing in the era before the French Revolution and is largely opposed to the democracy of the contemporary United States of America (Bull 2002: 8-9). However, it is necessary to note that the concept of state and the problem of rule making are closely connected to the distribution of power because the power exist in a certain society while a society has certain rules and common interests. In this respect, some states can exist regardless of a definite territory or a restriction of rules to a certain territory because the main concept of power distribution happens among individuals and groups that can be situated within the territory (Bull 2002: 9). Nevertheless, though political power is spread over the population, it is often limited to a certain territory and can change regarding the interests of the same nation and preferences existing in various regions of the same state. The main theor y of power elite approach in rule making concerns the command as the way to allocate the process of distribution of power in society; however, it is necessary to emphasise the principle when the interests or rules are characterised as good or legal contrasted to the objective principles or unification of preferences that is typical of a power elite approach (Poggi 1978: 2-5). In additions, the existence of visible diversity and other so-called advantages of the pluralist approach can be considered irrelevant because these concepts do not guarantee the appropriateness of political power or genuine equality in the power allocation principles (Lukes 2005: 47). State and society are approached in different ways in by a power elite principle whereas the process of unification is more obvious taking into account the principles typical of the pluralist approach. So, the theory of differentiation is the core of the power elite approach because it enables a single leader to make decisions an d make laws (often in association with another part of social elite) and there is no necessity to fight for political power as the main concept of influence is the command.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Theories and the pluralist approach. The pluralist approach to the rule making process makes the United States of America the most prominent example of this principle in action. Though there is a number of irrefutable evidence of this method’s inappropriateness and secrecy (regardless of the observable openness), its benefits are largely promoted and supported by the global community and international society. Collective behaviour tradition can be considered the core concept for the pluralist approach to the process of rule making (Gamson 1975: 131). This causes the unification of the relations between individuals, groups, and individu al-group/group-individual relations in society. As social relations are commonly unified in accordance with the pluralist approach, inequality arises from the democracy as it appears in a contemporary society because interests are unified as well as preferences though the resources of influence can differ greatly which can result in relocation of political power and, hence, the change of the principles of rule making. The main theories of the pluralist approach include the inferiority of the social preferences compared to the preferences and interests of the political power. As a rule, the pluralist approach is aimed at meeting the requirements of the democracy regardless the genuine principles of power allocation and the amount of resources of influence. Thus, collective goals unify the social interests and make common rules serves the reaching of those goals; the political behaviour can be analysed with regard to the goals of a community opposed to personal interests and preferenc es (Gamson 1975: 138). Benefits of the pluralist approach can be neutralized with the differentiating nature of the contemporary policy in the international society opposed to the principles of unification brought about by other communities that popularize the differentiation concepts. As the core aspect of the pluralist approach to the rule making is the unification, this theory can fail to address all existing interests and preferences topical for the current members of a society. Distribution of Power in Society Discussing the contradictions of the pluralist and power elite theories is incomplete with the consideration of the distribution of power in society.Advertising Looking for essay on natural sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In particular, these issues matter when applied to common analysis of presented theories either approving or disapproving the leading role of society in forming the power relations. Another difficulty arises when dealing with the problem of democracy and inequality. In this case, there is the necessity to make an emphasis on the character of the leading power and the triggering principle of power relations. The major controversy appears when considering distribution of power in society in terms of pluralist views. Due to the fact that this approach is based on meeting the needs of democracies, social power is distributed according to the principle of equal impact on the government. The problem is that equal distribution of power among physical entities is not always possible because of irrational resources allocation presented by material object, social status, and ethical considerations (Dahl 1961:3). In response to this problem, the necessity to introduce the elite power approach to social order is inevitable due to the rigid inequality of property, knowledge and social position, and publicity between the members of society (Dahl 1961:6). In order to reconcile the needs of power elite and the constellations of influenced groups, it is necessary to consider power distribution with reference to institutional arrangement and command. These two concepts presented by Poggi (1978:3) seem to be quite reasonable from the perspective of political order and legitimacy. Indeed, favorable distribution of resources on the basis of command is more effective that that based on custom and exchange. This is explained by the ideas that the body of custom end exchange cannot sustain the exploration and mobilization of new resources and values. In addition, it does not allow society to prevent various contingencies enabling the members to choose the most appropriate patterns to act (Poggi 1978:4). Arising from everything mentioned above, the main principle of power allocation s hould be based on unanimous legitimate arrangement on the two-polar power system. Therefore, society should be directed by one or a specific set of goals that would encompass social and political order. Alternatively, the disposition of views and approaches, which is typical of pluralistic order, will lead to appearance of different values and beliefs (Bull 2002:4). Bull’s approach to the distribution of power is predominantly based on monopolistic views that exclude the pluralist techniques for the decision-making process. Therefore, the introduction of democratic approaches will strike the balance within the domain of social and political dimensions (Emerson 1962:32). Comparative Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pluralism and Elite Power Approaches Highlighting the strengths of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Each of the approaches under consideration has some strong sides due to their great contributions to the arrangement of social and political order. Considering the pluralist theory, the positive side of pluralist approach implementation consists in its focus on social relation as the leading factor of power formation. In particular, the main underpinning of social power is not the leading actor, but the relation itself (Emerson, 1962: 33). The leaders possess power only when they have a specific group to impose power on. In addition to this, the pluralist approach is more effective as far as a decision-making process is concerned. Lukes (2005:17), thus, places an emphasis on the social behavior as the triggering factor of social relations and as an indicator of power. Consistent and successful process of decision making generates a healthy competition that, in its turn, positively contributes to social, economical, and political development of a state. In contrast, the main merit of the elite power approach in the process of rule making is also valuable. According to this theory, the social relations are governed by one purpose where all decisions are made with regard to this purpose. The success of such monopolistic approach is possible in case the state is headed by the leader who has sufficient resources and who is able to allocate them within society in a reasonable way. The governing of one leader fosters the accomplishment of the established goals and decreases the possibility of disagreement within society (Bull 2002: 9). More importantly, the elite power theory contributes to the formation of social and political integrity. Considering the elite theory of power through the prism of social order, this approach is more efficient in arranging rules and orders within a state, particularly if the flow of social activities is based on the principle of command (Poggi, 1978:5). Indeed, the exploration and advancement will be considerably facilitated under the auspices of a monopolistic power. Highlighting the weaknesses of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Although the pluralist approach t o the process of rule-making is more productive for meeting the needs of society, it encounters the difficulties when dealing with the equal allocation of sources (Dahl 1961:5). In particular, excessive democracy dictating equal participation in governing can lead to greater discrepancies between communities. Discussing pluralism from the point of view of order formation, this method of rule making is irrelevant, because the social order cannot be based on the divergent positions. What is more important is mixed views cannot satisfy legal, moral, and economic aspect of decision making as the essence of political decision consist in the necessity to promote specific goals. The problem of decision making arises when dealing with elite power approach to the process of rule making. By promoting the leaders’ rules and preferences, the government deprives society of political significance and minimizing its role in providing viable solutions. In other words, the suppression of poli tical role decreases the importance of social relations (Emerson: 1962: 32). As a result, the government can lose the object of power and, therefore, it cannot be considered to owner of the power itself. In addition, the concentration of power can even lead to great inequality of resources distribution. Conclusion The pluralist and elite power approaches constitute opposite sides of a two-polar system with regard to the process of rule making. This is primarily predetermined by opposite focus on the political systems and conceptual priorities of both approaches. Hence, the pluralist approach is more concerned with influencing powers and social relations whereas the power of elite approach argues the necessity to establish a unanimous goal to pursue. On the one hand, a pluralistic approach considers social relations as the underpinning of governing and resources allocation. It also strives to establish the equality in the process of decision-making. On the other hand, elite power con cept is more effective in reaching the policy of unification where the international order is subjected to the prevailing superiority-inferiority relations. Taking into consideration all strengths and weaknesses, both approaches simultaneously provide viable solutions and serious controversies when applied to the distribution of power in society. Works Cited Bull, Hedley. The Concept of Order in World Politics. The Anarchical Society. A Study of Order in World Politics. UK: Palgrave, 2002, Print. Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Emerson, Richard M. â€Å"Power-Dependence Relations†. American Sociological Review. 27.1. (1962): 31-41. Print. Gamson, William A. â€Å"the limits of Pluralism.† The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: The Dorsey Press, 1975. Print. Lukes, Steven. Power: a Radical View. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print. Poggi, Gianfranco. Introduction: The Business of R ule. The Development of the Modern State. California: Stanford University Press, 1978, Print. This essay on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches was written and submitted by user Wayne Garza to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Inaugural Speech essays

The Inaugural Speech essays Summary of President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address This inaugural speech establishes what John F. Kennedy's vision is for the United Statesactually it is more of a world visionof global unity, supporting freedom and human rights for all humankind. He suggests that we should all celebrate in this time of freedom. Man holds all of the power in his hands. Yet, there are still revolutionary beliefs being fought around the world. He does not want us to forget that we are all apart of this revolution. He states, "The torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans that are unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed"(Kennedy 1). He wants us to feel proud and support our nation. We should protect it at any cost to keep the people free. Therefore, we pledge our alliance to this nation. He believes the world would be much stronger and could conquer any problem as a whole rather than being divided. We can use our country's strengths to help the other nations to be free. He assures the new states that would be joining in the "ranks of the free"(Kennedy 1), it would not be absolute control. He encourages these states to support their beliefs and their freedom. President John F. Kennedy suggests, "We need to help the people help themselves. For if a free society cannot save the few who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich"(Kennedy 2). We all need to work together as a global unit. Also, let our neighbors know that no other countries are going to take us over. He wants us to believe that "this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house"(Kennedy He proposes a request, "Both sides begin anew the quest for peace before the destruction of all humanity in planned or accidental self destruction ...