Thursday, October 31, 2019

Would there be Apple without Jobs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Would there be Apple without Jobs - Essay Example has grown by leaps and bounds. Steve Jobs’ death earlier this year has raised apprehensions about the future of Apple Inc. Research Problem With the absence of man who has been termed as the single biggest factor in the success of Apple Inc, questions arise whether Tim Cook, the new CEO, will be able to lead the company and retain its dominant position. The other big doubt that emerges is whether Apple Inc. will continue to roll out innovative products as it did during Steve Jobs’ regimen. Research Design The study has used exploratory research to identify the apprehensions raised due to Steve Jobs’ death. Descriptive research has also been used in the study to gauge the likelihood of customers purchasing the Apple brand again. Research Methodology Both primary and secondary research has been used in the study. For primary research a self administered questionnaire was got filled from 100 respondents inside Apple Stores. Findings of the Study Steve Jobs had depar ted from the Apple on earlier ocassions also. Steve Jobs had certain bad qualities and thus was not the perfect manager. Steve Jobs had resigned in August 2011 and Tim Cook, as a part of Apple’s succession plan, has been the CEO since then. ... Apple Computer started manufacturing and selling computers with the launch of Apple II personal computer in 1977. In 1980, the company issued shares to the general public and was incorporated as a public company (By 1987). A year later, in 1981, IBM released its PC and Apple had its first real competitor. In 1985, Steve Jobs left Apple due to his non-compatibility with the then CEO John Sculley. Apple continued to dominate the desktop publishing market for many years after Steve Jobs departure. Under the stewardship of Sculley, Apple grew to an $8 billion company. By 1992, the company started feeling the heat of the competition and its earnings as well as margins started falling. Under pressure to introduce another breakthrough product, Sculley invested a lot of resources on Newton, Apple’s Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Newton did not live up to the expectation and its sales did not really take off. Scully resigned in 1993 and Michael Spindler took charge as CEO. The latte r too did not last long as Apple incurred significant quarterly losses in 1996. The board appointed Dr Gil Amelio to replace Splinder. The move did not work well. Eventually Apple decided to purchase NeXT Computer, the company that Steve Jobs had formed after his departure from Apple Computers. The purchase of NeXT marked the return of Steve Jobs at Apple Computers and the beginning of a new era. What happened after Job’s homecoming is what the world admires and looks at with awe. Today Apple has become a 32 billion dollar company primarily due to the efforts and expertise of its co-founder, Steve Jobs (Finkle 2010). The iconic Steve Jobs passed away in October 2011. He was 56 and one of the greatest innovator, technical genius and marketing wizard of his time (Streuli

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The First Day Essay Example for Free

The First Day Essay The set-up for the beginning of the story describes the narrator’s social status. It appears that when the narrator was young, she came from a low income family, her mother states: â€Å"You gonna go there and learn about the whole world† (Jones 29). The mother says these words as if she was aiming for her child to achieve a great goal, the narrator says: â€Å"For as many Sundays as I can remember, perhaps even Sundays when I was in her womb, my mother has pointed across I street to Seaton†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Jones 29). This indicates that it was her mother’s dream to initiate her daughter’s studies in what she believed was the best school. A parent of higher income would not dream to send his or her child to a high class school; the parent would just do it. Also, the narrator gives an in-depth description of the preparation that she endures as her mother attempts to perfect her appearance, wanting to make the impression that her daughter belongs at school, and does not deserve a life in poverty. Furthermore, the narrator gives another hint of her past social status when she says: â€Å"I am learning this about my mother: The higher up on the scale of respectability a person is-and teachers are rather high up in her eyes- the less she is liable to let them push her around† (Jones 29). If the narrator’s mother considers teachers to Pg. 2 be of a higher social status, then, this would mean that the narrator’s mother either did not have an education or did not complete her studies, which is relatively common among people of extreme poverty. The story continues, and it shows her mother’s determination in giving her child a better future. This is observed when the narrator’s mother doesn’t give up after she was told that because of the location where she lived she couldn’t get her child to attend Seaton Elementary School, which was the school she always wanted her child to go to. The narrator’s mother doesn’t give up and tells her daughter, â€Å"One monkey don’t stop no show† (Jones 29), showing her intensions to continue on looking for a place where her daughter can be educated. Eventually the narrator’s mother does find a school which would take her daughter, but the encouraging attitude is quickly veiled when during her admission to the new school, the narrator finds out that her mother cannot read and write. The narrator learns that this is not normal, even though she is very young, she could identify that her mother doesn’t have the ability to read or write like the rest of people. This was the beginning when the narrator, even though young, begins to understand that there was going to be a change in her life. Her mother lets her know this by cutting short a game they always use to play, she makes her understand that this was a significant situation, and even though she didnt quite understand, things were going to be different from that point forward. Based on the aforementioned passages, which serve as supporting evidence, and the puzzle I would intent to explain next, I believe is very clear that the narrator’s shame of her mother began on her first day of school. I built this argument because according to the story this particular day was the beginning of a change in the narrator’s life; she stated: â€Å"On an otherwise unremarkable September morning†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Jones 27), she clearly points that this was a â€Å"remarkable â€Å"day in her life, a day she cannot Pg. 3 forget. Through the book scenarios, we learned that by being able to go to school, the narrator is probably on a much higher social level than her mother ever was, and by having an education the narrator was able to grow out of poverty and despites the fact that she was ever poor. In addition, the fact that her mother was not able to read shamed her to the core, and her humiliation did began her first day of school, when she realized that she was poor and her mother was an uneducated woman; that is what the narrator was ashamed of. Thickening the plot, the story also suggests that because that her mother was no â€Å"push† over among people of higher class, it could have created several arguments as the narrator grew intellectually and socially. Perhaps, being â€Å"now† and educated woman, she rather admit to be ashamed of her mother because she had extreme arguments with her, and would blame her mother’s ignorance to her new world and social life, but the narrator would not accept that it was because her mother couldn’t read; after all, this would be too awful since deep inside she knew that it was her mother who made her into the accomplished person she is. But the shame on her mother did in-fact started when she became aware that her mother was illiterate. It is sad that a child would be ashamed of her own mother, especially after she made every effort to see her child succeed. Being an immigrant from another country, I knew the sacrifices my mother had to endure in order to provide me with a better future, but in-turn I continued my mother’s dreams through my successes in life and pride all her sacrifices. The narrator never realized that she inherited the feel of superiority and arrogance from her mother: As the narrator’s mother left the school, her footsteps signified strength, diligence, determination, and the endurance she was passing on to her daughter. The mother understood that this was going to be the start of a new life for her daughter in order to make sure that she would never be like her, but she was indeed. Pg. 4 Citations * Jones, E. P. (1992). Lost in the city, the first day.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Coca Cola Globalisation Methods And Plans Business Essay

Coca Cola Globalisation Methods And Plans Business Essay This part of the research report would provide a detailed account of Coca-Colas globalisation methods and plans using the business techniques explained in part 2 which are the SWOT analysis and Ohmaes five Cs. It would include a description of results of Coca-Colas globalisation plans and methods with any limitation. Besides that, market results of Coca-Cola expansion with the use of tables and flowcharts. There would be a critical analysis of the results of the globalisation effect of Coca-Cola. Lastly, conclusions would be drawn based on overall research findings while overseeing how well projected objectives and research questions are met and appropriate recommendations. 3.1 Globalisation According to the Levin Institute, Globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments of different nations, driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has major effect on the environment, culture, political systems, economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being and societies around the world. (Levin Institute, n.d) Its effects influences people as businesses tend to move beyond their domestic and national markets to other markets around the globe, where different markets are interconnected. It is also seen as extending its reach to other parts of the world. 3.2 Why did Coca-Cola globalise? Using Kenichi Ohmaes 5Cs framework with reference to the BPP textbook, we can understand the reasons why Coca-Cola moved towards international markets for expansion. Customer The Coca-Cola Company wanted everyone around the world to enjoy its product. It was the owners vision for its product to be enjoyed worldwide. The companys success was also ensured since it enjoyed homogenous customers where people around the world enjoyed the same taste. This partnered with major advertising campaigns made Coca-Cola one of the most famous brand name in the world. With the help of creative advertising, Coca-Cola was able to capture the loyalty of consumers to continue use of its products. Advertising is seen as a medium for the company to communicate and promote its products to its customers which is widely used by The Coca-Cola Company. According to Figure 1, there is clear indication of gradual increase of unit case sales over the 4 year period. Table 1 show that the increase of unit cases sold over the 4 years compared to the previous year has dropped slightly in 2009 with only 2.95% whereas the highest increase was in 2007 with a 6.07% increase from 2006. The Coca-Cola Company has also introduced new products to existing markets in order to suit to a particular country taste bud. In 2009, research testing of a new fountain dispenser called the Coca-Cola Freestyle is able to dispense more than 100 different brands of beverages which is currently being placed in selected US markets and would continue to be placed worldwide. The purpose of the new dispenser is to capture data of what kind of taste people have in preference, this allows the company to gather data on statistics of peoples choice in order to develop and introduce a new product into the market. (The Coca-Cola Company) Company The Coca-Cola Company enjoys large economies of scale by moving into international markets. Large scale bottling in the long run makes the company more competitive by improving their production methods in order to achieve the lowest cost possible. They also look into potential international markets for growth and investment opportunities. After local market needs are fulfilled, the company would want to enter into new markets in order to increase its sales and profits. It would also increase the companys customer base since there is a new supply of demand to be met. Listed below in Figure 2 and Table 2 is the net operating revenue, operating income and net income for the Coca-Cola Company over 4 years. Net operating revenue, operating income and net income ($ millions) $ (millions)Figure 2: Net operating revenue, operating income and net income of The Coca-Cola Company over a 4 year period According to Figure 2, the companys net operating revenue is seen to be increasing gradually over the 4 year period while dropping only slightly in 2009 although there was a major recession. Net income also has been increasing over the 4 year period to a record high of $ 6.8 billion in 2009. This could be due to better cost management. Further analysis on Table 3 indicates that the companys cost is also kept at a constant level of around 33% to 36% of total net operating revenue in order to maintain a high gross profit margin of 63% to 66%. This is to ensure that the company is always profitable to attract move investors. According to the recent capital expenditures made by The Coca-Cola Company, the company is still seen expanding its operations worldwide with increased capital expenditure made over the 4 years. This can be found in Table 4 below which show the capital expenditures made by the company from 2006 to 2009. Competition The Coca-Cola Company competes in the non-alcoholic beverages segment of the commercial beverages industry. The beverage industry is highly competitive, as there are many different types of drinks in the market ranging from non-alcoholic to alcoholic products. There are many companies that are similar to The Coca-Cola Company, some of which tends to compete for share of market across the world. The company particularly globalised due to the fact that they wanted to gain access into new and bigger markets since their domestic market needs are already fulfilled. Another reason would be due to strong competition from The Pepsi-Cola Company as they are the companys biggest rivals. According to the Coca-Cola Company, there are numerous competitive factors that could impact the business which include pricing, advertising, sales promotion programs, product innovation, increased efficiency in production techniques, the introduction of new packaging, new vending and dispensing equipment, bran d and trademark development and protection. (The Coca-Cola Company) Below Figure 3 and Table 5 indicates the top 10 beverage companies ranked accordingly by market share. According to Figure 3, The Coca-Cola Company still leads in market share of 41.9% ahead of PepsiCo of 29.9%. This is a good sign for the company as PepsiCo is the companys biggest competitor. The company should remain focus on defending its market share and stay the market leader. According to the data in Table 5, market share for The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo have negative share change in 2009 while the others have a slight improvement or no improvement. This should not be taken lightly by the company as the competitors might team up and take on the company. Currency Coca-Cola also went international so that they can mitigate their foreign currency exchange rates by earning revenue in a different currency through sales in a particular country. Selling products and services in multiple countries also reduces the companys exposure to possible economic and political instability in a single country. In 2009, The Coca-Cola Company traded in 71 different functional currencies in addition to the U.S Dollar. A total of 74 percent net operating revenue was derived from outside the United States. Therefore, increases or decreases in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies will have a major effect on the items that are denominated in foreign currencies. Listed below in Figure 4 are foreign exchange rate gains or losses from 2006 to 2009. Country The Coca-Cola Company would want gain access to cheaper labour, raw materials and finance. Such as the cost of labour hour in China is only $1.27 per hour (Malone, 2008) which is ranked fairly low compared to other developed countries. This would minimize the cost of bottling and result in higher revenue gained. Bottling plants in China as of end of October 2009 total at 39 plants and is still increasing at a high rate. (The Coca-Cola Company) Furthermore, resources that are difficult to obtain in their home market can be located elsewhere at a better price while going international. This can be achieved by outsourcing some of their operation to other countries in order to improve efficiency since service providers are specialised in its services rendered. Outsourcing is widely used by todays company, as it allows the company to focus on its core activities where non-core activities are outsourced to specialist industries. This can lead to a saving in fixed cost as there is no need t o hire monthly salaried staff. As per Figure 5, we can see that average salary earned in the United States of America (USA) is much higher than the salary earned in China which is more than a 150 percent difference. This is mainly because China is still a developing market while USA is a developed market. This enables the company to fetch a lower cost for labour in China than in USA. 3.3 How did Coca-Cola globalise There are different entry modes a company can choose on how to enter a market. The Coca-Cola Company uses different stages of entry modes depending on the markets. It mainly depends on the total size or market population, the percentage of that population using their products, and the quantity of products that they can sell to non-users. Once the market is identified and selected, they would first consider the degree of resource commitment and the extent of the firm operational involvement in that particular region. As their bottling strategy, the company would first help their bottlers to build up their business. This is by injecting funds into the said bottlers through equity investments. This is beneficial for both the company and its bottler as in increase in production capacity at bottler level would have a resulting increase in concentrate sales. The level of investment depends on the bottlers capital structure and resources at the time of investment. (The Coca-Cola Company) According to the company, it maintains business relationship with three types of bottlers which are: Bottlers in which the company has no ownership interest; Bottlers in which the company has invested and has a non-controlling ownership interest; and Bottlers in which the company has invested and has a controlling ownership interest. Bottling operations in which the company has as of 31st December 2009: According to the company, controlling interest is only often held for a temporary basis. By owning such interest, it helps by being able to exert influence in monitoring bottlers revenue. It also develops the bottlers business where funds are used to build the capital structure of the bottle which would enable them to widen its operations. As part of their long term strategy, the company would consider reducing their ownership interest in the bottler when their investment matures. The company then comes down to two options, one is to combine their bottling interest with others to form strategic alliances, or the other is to sell their interest to equity method investee bottlers. However, the company will still continue to monitor the bottlers results. For investments that are non-controlling interest, the company would provide its expertise and resources to strengthen those businesses. China The stages of entry are explained in detailed below using China as an example by referring to Moks journal review. (Mok et al. , 2002) During the first stage (1974-84), Coca-Cola exported and sold its concentrate to its franchised Chinese-owned bottlers. Local market agents were held fully responsible for production and distribution whereas the company were in charge of advertising. Due to the bottlers opportunistic behaviour which first prioritise their own bottom line, it limited the expansion of Coca-Colas market share in early stages. The method used is seen as exporting through contractual agreements as trust of the bottlers has yet to be gained. During the second stage (1985-92), Coca-Cola bought equity shares in the bottling businesses in order to reduce the effect of uncertainty. Besides that, it was also to restrict the opportunistic behaviours of its local bottlers since their only focus was on their own bottom-line which were disadvantageous to Coca-Cola. This is known as Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into the said bottlers which may include acquisitions of well established companies in the later stage. During the third stage (1993-present), Coca-Cola teamed up with two foreign bottlers which are the Kerry and Swire group under a franchise agreement. The company then began to internalise its management and operations by sourcing locally. Soon then, the whole operation was handed to locals and watched over by the foreign division manager. Sourcing for upstream suppliers is decentralised to the division manager since buying locally would have savings on taxes. Contracting in local language would be made easier as a result of the localisation. India Coca-Cola was the leading bola business in India before 1977. However, a change of government forced them to pull out their business since new legislations required the sharing of the secret formula with a local partner which posed a huge risk. The Coca-Cola only re-entered the market in 1993, after Indian regulations were changed to allow foreign brands to operate without any Indian partnership. By then, PepsiCo had already captured majority share and ruled without competition as they were there since 1988. (Srivastava, 2010) To make things worse, Coca-Cola suffered a huge blow to their brand name in India as their plants had huge demands for water, which led thousands of farmers out of work by draining the water that feeds their crops which had implications on the local economy. Besides that, the waste sludge produced by their plants sold as fertilizer was proven to be toxic to the soil. (Brown, 2003). PepsiCos market in India has been strong since then, as it has become the default name for colas in India. However, the company has not given up on the Indian market as growth is picking up slowly. Their strategy includes introducing other products in their portfolio to the market and buying up a local brand cola competitor Thums Up, to compete against PepsiCo. Thums Up is now ranked first in India with a market share of 16.16% as of 2009, Sprite also a product of Coca-Cola is ranked second with 15.6% compared to Pepsis market share of just 13% according to AC Nielsen data. (Bhushan, 2009) The Coca-Cola Companys mode of entry often changes according to suit the particular country. Internationalisation is seen as a sequential process whereby firms gradually increase their commitment to new markets and accumulate knowledge slowly in order to increase their capabilities. It suggests that firms initially use entry modes that allow them to maximise knowledge acquisition whilst minimizing the risk of their assets. 3.4 Effects of globalisation The effects as a result of The Coca-Cola Companys globalisation have had a huge impact on the world. By using the SWOT analysis, the effects of globalisation of The Coca-Cola Company can be separated into positive and negative effects. Positive effects consist of strengths and opportunities, whereas negative effects are the companys weaknesses and threats. 3.4.1 Positive effects Strengths Competition to improve quality Globalisation has led to increased competition for the non-alcoholic beverage market for the company. Hence, there is an overall competition to improve the quality of their products for them to compete for market share. In order to survive, the company must be able to cope with the rising standards of their customers. The company must be able to compete at low prices and continuously improve their bottling processes. Keen competition forces companies to accelerate their product innovation and advertising campaigns which can be seen as strength for the industry. Innovation The economic environment is changing rapidly as a result of globalisation. The future development of the world is shaped as a result of globalisation. Benefits to society are often shared among people for the greater good. With the invention of seatbelts by Volvo shared, it increased the survival rate of car accidents. (Bellis, n.d) An example would be the bottling plants built by The Coca-Cola Company uses mechanics that are advanced automated robotics which introduces countries to a more effective and efficient way of bottling which could then be improved further to suit local needs. By improving their production line around the world, it would strengthen the companys presence. The company will be able share their technical know-how around their bottling plants based on experience in different countries. Such as improvements made in one country can be shared with other bottling plants owned by the company around the world. The first bottling plant that follows Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards was opened in 2009 in Latin America. (The Coca-Cola Company) Popularity and recognition As a result of mass expanding and advertising programs, the company was able to enter into countries worldwide which eventually made their brand name one of the most well-known brands of today. Many companies have since followed by expanding into international waters while keeping focus on brand recognition would eventually come to known worldwide still can be seen in todays industry. Advertising campaigns are the strengths of The Coca-Cola Company as it can capture the loyalty of consumers with easily recognised advertisements. An example would be the commercial advertisement in 1971 where The Hillside Singers sang a song called Id like to teach the World to Sing in Perfect Harmony. (The Coca-Cola Company) In this commercial, people of all different cultures and races come together to sing about wanting world peace and infers that world peace can be achieved by buying someone a coke. Opportunities Job opportunities With the companys global expansion, it was able to provide job opportunities in over 200 different countries worldwide which would definitely build and enhance the economic development of ones country. The Coca-Cola Company itself currently has 92,800 employees worldwide as of 2009 (Hoovers, 2009) and much more if other related parties are added. This is seen as an opportunity for the company as it would be able to employ a diverse background of employees from all around the world. Cultural influence Cultures around the world have come together and created so many different societies across different cities around the globe which have grown and improved according to globalisation. Some old traditions are discarded while new ones are form from day to day. The same can be said of Coca-Cola, which has pop-up in countries across the world and change the way people have their meals. The brand is widely accepted by different nations due to homogenous markets. This is such a great opportunity for the company to make an impression and an indelible move as the different types of cultures around the world, where there is a similar or common culture, that is, Coca-Cola. (Kulkarni, n.d) Huge portfolio to pursue Since The Coca-Cola Company has over 200 brands in its portfolio, there are other many up and coming new brands for the company to pursue. This would ensure the companys survival in the late future if a brand succession plan is in place. An unknown product does not mean its a failure, just not yet discovered by people. Once discovered it will pave the road to success and therefore securing the companys future. One of the main company strategies is to buy out competition of rising brands that they think would do well in the distant future. 3.4.2 Negative effects Weaknesses Lack of popularity in other portfolio brands In addition, the other brands offered besides the main brand Coca-Cola lacks popularity. It is mostly unknown or rarely seen on shelves probably due to restricted distribution in a particular country as testing acceptance of the market. These brands are kept low profiled and no related link is made to the main brand in case the brand fails. This is seen as a weakness in the line of products Coca-Cola has to offer as advertising allowance is not fairly distributed to all their products. Health effects There are also certain health effects to be concerned with as a result of Coca-Colas globalisation. By referring to the book Liquid Candy written by Jacobson (Jacobson, 2005), he discusses the effects of consuming soda drinks that could lead to several health concerns. Below are adverse health effects viewed as a threat to the companys going concern if people boycott their products which would have adverse effect on the companys revenue and survival. Sugar is important source of carbohydrates for our body. However, soft drinks contain high amounts of sugar (Better Health Channel, n.d) where regular consumption could lead to overweight or obese problems. By being obese, it tends to increase the chances of having diabetes and many other types of diseases. Obesity could also lead to social and psychological problems such as starving oneself to reduce weight. Soft drinks often have links with lower calcium levels which could lead to the disease osteoporosis. Deep concern should be placed on children since calcium is needed in early stages for development of bones. Too much soft drinks could lead to poor bone materialisation in the future life of the children. Therefore, in order to safeguard ones future, parents should control the intake of soda drinks of their children. Soft drinks also have high levels of phosphoric acid which can be harmful to ones teeth. The acidity level in soft drinks can be compared to that of vinegar which can cause corrosion of the enamel. Most of the soft drinks contain caffeine for its energy boosting effects. Therefore consuming too much soft drink could lead to caffeine addiction. There are withdrawal symptoms such as nausea or headache if one is addicted. High intakes of caffeine can lead to insomnia and even irregular heartbeats. (Yakowicz, 2010) Threats Changing health consciousness With the companys globalisation, bad aspects of foreign cultures would tend to affect its way into local cultures. Such as the soft drinks craze that is spreading around the world. Although beneficial for the company where higher consumption leads to higher revenues, consuming too much will have adverse health effects on its consumers. The health consciousness of people are starting to change, as they are moving towards a healthier lifestyle in which avoidance on soda drinks may be a threat to the company future. Job insecurity Companies often seek to lower their cost in order to earn a higher profit margin. One of the methods is to outsource their non-core activities such the payroll function to service providers. This would ensure a lower cost with an acceptable level of quality in work done. As a result, it increases unemployment rate in developed nations. Developing countries like China and India dominate the outsourcing market because of their fairly low labour cost. There is a higher risk of retrenchment for employees in the developed countries as they can be replaced by their counterparts across the world in pursuit of low cost. Therefore, a threat exists where the company might lose its good employees to competitors if it shows the slightest signs of restructuring. Local industries taken over by foreign multinationals Foreign multinationals often take over local companies as a mode of entry into the particular country. It would deprive the upbringing of local industries as those who remained will have to face a tougher competition posed by the foreign multinational. This is one of the strategies used by The Coca-Cola Company as they are actively acquiring local bottling plants around the world. A threat would be present if the local governments start to restrict the company from further expansion in its country in order to safeguard their home grown companies. This would serve as an obstacle to the companys expansion plans into the said country. (Pillai, n.d) Waste and pollution Developing countries are often taken advantage of by foreign multinationals. Since developing nations need high levels of foreign investment to boost its economic development, the local governments would tend to overlook on the pollution caused as they cannot risk a withdrawal of funds from the country. The environmental laws and regulations of a developing nation are also in the process of setting up. Therefore, foreign multinational companies often take this advantage by setting up plants at an early stage. The Coca-Cola Company has taken advantage of this matter in India where their factories produced waste sludge and were sold as fertilizer which was proven toxic to crops. (Brown, 2003) As this poses a threat to the environment, the companys licenses can be revoked if not settled. Measures should be taken by the company to implement environmentally friendly plants for the future in deluding the toxic waste. 3.5 Conclusions The international expansion of The Coca-Cola Company can be seen worldwide. Its products have permeated into societies all over the world. The first project objective of this research project has been met, which evaluates the positive and negative effects of globalisation of Coca-Cola brand name where the SWOT analysis was used is outlined below in Figure 7. (S)trengths Popularity and recognition Competition to improve quality Innovation (W)eaknesses Lack of popularity in other portfolio brands Health effects (O)pportunities Huge portfolio to pursue Cultural influence Job opportunities (T)hreats Job insecurity Changing health consciousness Local industries taken over by foreign multinationals Waste and pollution The second project objective was to assess the job opportunities The Coca-Cola Company created jobs worldwide. As of 2009, the company has 92,800 employees employed worldwide. By providing jobs to developing countries such as China and India, it would greatly help the development of the said country. We can understand why The Coca-Cola Company moved towards globalised markets based on Ohmaes 5Cs as discussed previously. According to market research, The Coca-Cola Company has the largest non-alcoholic beverage market share worldwide with a market share 42.9% as of 2009 according to (Sicher, 2010) with 24.4 billion unit cases sold worldwide in 2009. (The Coca-Cola Company) Therefore, the third project objective was also met. 3.6 Recommendations The main recommendations for The Coca-Cola Company are to exploit their strengths and opportunities, while mitigating their weaknesses and threats. The main strength is its popularity of the brand Coca-Cola. The company can use the Coca-Cola name to support their other products if the product is accepted by consumers. A step further is to advertise the products side by side since its advertising campaigns are refreshing and easily recognised. This enables the company to capture a new type of customer loyalty. Popularity of a brand name mainly depends on the peoples word of mouth. This can either be positive or negative in different conditions. Other brands that the company offer lack popularity which is a weakness for the company. The company should not just focus on the main brand but also push potential brands to the public. The Coca-Cola Company should pursue other brands in their portfolio since Coca-Cola is already a world known product. This can be done with increased advertising for the less popular products which would lead to more brand recognition if the product is successful. If a product is unable to capture a market and operations are running at a loss, the product should be discontinued. Funds saved from closing the division can be used to improve other brands or to acquire new potential brands. A major threat to the company is the changing health consciousness of the people. The company has made efforts since then by introducing low sugar and caffeine-free products into their portfolio and must continue doing so. Besides that, there is strong competition from other rival brands such as PepsiCo. The main idea here is to steal market share from its rivals such as finding out what are the strong brands the rival have and to introduce a similar product that would serve as an alternative.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Church Reform :: European Europe History

Church Reform The Reformation of European religion in the 16th century cannot be generally attributed to the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance. Although the peasants saw bishops and abbots as part of a wealthy and oppressive ruling class and rebelled against the Roman Catholic Church for reasons primarily pertaining to the lavish adornments used by those aforementioned, their power was not great enough, nor did their reasons carry enough clout to start a reformation movement throughout Europe: that job was accomplished by those already having some, however small, social or religious power, such as the monk Martin Luther, the accomplished priest and lawyer Jean Cauvin, and King Henry VIII of England. The Lutheran and Calvinist Reformations were very similar in principle, although the Lutheran Reformation was less widespread. Luther and Calvin held that not mere abuses of the Roman Catholic Church needed correcting, but that the Catholic Church itself was wrong in principle. Luther's cause for reformation of 16th century European religion came from his unnatural paranoia that he was damned. He had problems convincing himself that his spirit was pure and that he would go to heaven; internal distress raged within him about the awful omnipotence of God, his own insignificant existence in comparison, and his apprehensiveness of the devil. His personal problems would not yield to the existing manners of assuring oneself that he/she was headed for heaven such as sacraments, alms, prayer attendance at Mass, and assorted "good works." Luther solved the problem, however, by believing that good works were the consequence and external evidence of an inner grace, but in no way the cause of th is grace. He felt that if one had faith in themselves, the religion, and God, then good works would manifest themselves because of it. This was Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. Luther was then involved in various events that provided for the spreading of Lutheranism, albeit sometimes indirectly. The agitation that Lutheranism was creating throughout Europe had revolutionary side effects where the reforming religious spirit was mistaken for that of a social and economic one, especially in Germany in the 1520s. A league of imperial knights, adopting Lutheranism, attacked their neighbors, the church-states of the Rhineland, hoping by annexations to enlarge their own meager territories. In 1524, the peasants of a large part of Germany revolted due to thoughts stirred up by preachers that took Luther's ideas a little too far: anyone could see for himself what was right.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Ethical Treatment of Animals Essay

False advertisements: Many customers have been complaining about McDonalds advertising one thing and doing something quite different. Many customers has been to a McDonald store only to find out different prices than the ones on the advertisements. For instance, sweat tea has been advertised for 1 but is sold for 1. 40 in the stores.  McDonald’s has also made many false advertisements about its products and how they are classed as healthy, nutritious food. Recently, A California non-profit organisation filed a lawsuit against McDonalds for false advertising regarding its announcement they would implement a change to new cooking oil with 48% less trans fat and that the change would be completed by February 2009. They have lied about this change and to this date have not complied by the announcement. A claim from Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) which is an animal rights pressure group; states that McDonalds has done nothing since 1997 to improve the life of even one animal. Animals are kept and grown in appalling conditions; just to keep costs down. This shows clearly that McDonald’s does not abide by the animal rights and recently PETA launched a protest in 250 McDonald’s restaurants around the globe to make customers aware of the McDonald’s cruelty towards animals. This has slightly damaged McDonald’s reputation as an ethically responsible company. McDonald’s has been unable to trade fairly in third world countries. Vast areas of land in poor countries are used for cattle ranching or to grow grain to provide raw material to McDonald restaurants. This is at the expense of local food needs. McDonald’s promote the use of meat products therefore wasting more and more food resources. 7 million tons of grain fed to livestock produces only 1 million tons of meat. This has meant that McDonalds is not trading fairly and is causing people in third world countries such as India, Indonesia and Africa to struggle with their basic food needs. Abuse of environment: Forests throughout the world vital for all life are being destroyed at a high rate by McDonalds. The company has admitted to using beef reared on ex-rainforest land, preventing its regeneration and growth. This is a major contributor towards â€Å"global warming† crisis. Farmers and suppliers are also forcing people to cut down further trees in an attempt to satisfy demand.  Violating human rights and consumer laws:  Human rights include discrimination. When a business is discriminating against an individual, they are in fact violating human rights. McDonalds are always opposed to trade unions and may not want its employees to join any as they think they are treating their employees right. McDonalds is said to be discriminating among its employees on basis of their age. Most people aged over 40 are discriminated against as it is very unlikely for them to get a job in a McDonalds’ restaurant. This is because McDonalds claim that it needs fresh, energetic, young employees to be able to cope with the constant hard work. McDonalds has also been caught on violations regarding unsafe working conditions, forced overtime, sub-subsistence wage and failure to pay legal benefits. Their factories are not open to independent monitoring by local non-government human and labour rights organisations to verify if they comply with fundamental human rights. McDonalds is linked to 4 pence-an-Hour Sweatshop in Vietnam, where seventeen year-old women are forced to work 9 to 10 hours a day, seven days a week, earning as little as 4 pence an hour in the Keyhinge factory in Vietnam making giveaway promotional toys–especially Disney characters–for McDonald’s. After working a 70-hour week, some of the teenage women earn just à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½3 At the end of February, 200 of the workers fell ill, 25 collapsed and three were hospitalized as a result of acute exposure to acetone. The human and labour rights of these workers are being violated by the company. Exploitation of employees: Workers working in the fast food industry has long been exploited and are paid low wages. McDonald’s do not pay overtime rates even when an employee works very long hours. Staffs working in the company restaurants have to work harder and faster therefore the working environment is never free of accidents such as burns. Majority of employees working for McDonalds are people who have fewer job options so they are subjected to exploitation. The company have always been opposed to trade unions. I have used the following websites and book to do my assignment. Bibliography BTEC National Business Book 1 by Roger Lewis & Roger Trevitt 2007 (2nd Edition)

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Tropical Rainforest Regions

Tropical Rainforest Regions Tropical rainforests mainly occur in the Worlds equatorial regions. Tropical forests are restricted to the small land area between the latitudes 22.5 ° North and 22.5 ° South of the equator - between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer (see map). They are also located on major separate continental forests which preserve them as independent, non-contiguous realms. Rhett Butler, on his excellent site  Mongabay, refers to these four regions as the Afrotropical, the Australian, the Indomalayan and the Neotropical rainforest realms. The Afrotropical Rainforest Realm Most of the tropical rainforests of Africa exist in the Congo (Zaire) River Basin. Remnants also exist throughout Western Africa which is in a sorry state due to the plight of poverty which encourages subsistence agriculture and firewood harvesting. This realm is increasingly dry and seasonal when compared to the other realms. The outlying portions of this rainforest region are steadily becoming desert. FAO suggests this realm lost the highest percentage of rainforests during the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s of any biogeographical realm. The Australian Oceanic Pacific Rainforest Realm Very little of the rainforest is located on the Australian continent. Most of this rainforest is located in Pacific New Guinea with a very small portion of the forest in the Northeast of Australia. Actually, the Australian forest has expanded over the last 18,000 years and remains relatively untouched. The Wallace Line  separates this realm from the Indomalayan realm. Biogeographer Alfred Wallace marked the channel between Bali and Lombok as the divide between two great zoogeographic regions, the Oriental and Australian. The Indomalayan Rainforest Realm Asias remaining tropical rainforest is in Indonesia (on scattered islands), the Malay peninsula and Laos and Cambodia. Population pressures have dramatically decreased the original forest to scattered fragments. Southeast Asias rainforests are some of the oldest in the World. Studies have indicated that several have existed for over 100 million years. The Wallace Line separates this realm from the Australian realm. The Neotropical Rainforest Realm The Amazon River Basin covers some 40% of the South American continent and dwarfs all other forests in Central and South America. The Amazon rainforest is roughly the size of the forty-eight contiguous United States. It is the largest continuous rainforest on Earth. The good news is, four-fifths of the Amazon is still intact and healthy. Logging is heavy in certain areas but there is still debate over the adverse effects but governments are involved in new pro-rainforest legislation. Oil and gas, cattle and agriculture are major causes of neotropical deforestation.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Narrative Essay Example College

Narrative Essay Example College Typically, narrative essays are not very popular in school and in college. You are more likely to be assigned to write evaluation, argumentative or persuasive essays. So if you feel you do not know where to start from, you might need to find a good narrative essay example college. It will give you a general idea of how your own paper should be like. If you are stuck with your paper and you cannot write a single word, if you feel frustrated because of the close deadline, do not waste time and contact us. We know what to do to save you out of trouble; we work 24/7 to provide you with qualified academic writing assistance whenever you need it. Students’ success is our main aim. Our habitual clients appreciate our efforts and come back again with the new assignments. Well, what useful ideas can you find in a good narrative essay example college? Write a story You are not required to do much research. Typically, when assigning this kind of paper, your teacher wants to evaluate your command of written English, your knowledge of grammar and punctuation. So, just think about a story you can present in your paper. Probably, if you search in your memory for a while, you will be able to recollect a lot of fascinating childhood stories. You can write a funny story about your pet, or a sad story about undivided love, or anything you find interesting. You have a chance to entertain your teacher and yourself, so why not use it? Mind your language If you want to include a dialogue in your narration in order to create a vivid picture in your reader’ mind, you can use colloquial language. However, in the rest of the paper avoid using colloquial words, slang, short word forms etc. While writing, keep at the forefront of your mind that your work is still an academic paper, so it is important to follow the rules of academic writing. Correct grammar and punctuation are very important for success of your paper. Get feedback As you see from the narrative essay example college you have found online, this task is creative writing, so it is important to get response of people whose opinion you can trust. For example, read the paper to your parents, they can probably give you some useful hints on how to improve your paper. Try to produce the best paper you possibly can; rewrite it until you see it is almost perfect. If you are deeply satisfied with the result of your thorough work, your teacher will definitely like it too.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Benefits to Getting a College Degree

Benefits to Getting a College Degree Being in college is hard in many ways: financially, academically, personally, socially, intellectually, physically. And most students question why they are trying to get a college degree at some point during their college experience. Simple reminders of the reasons why you want to get a college degree can help keep you on track when you feel like getting off. Tangible Reasons to Get a College Degree Youll make more money: figures range from several hundred thousand to a million dollars or more over your lifetime. Regardless of the details, however, youll have more income.Youll have a lifetime of increased opportunities. More job openings, more chances at promotions, and more flexibility with which jobs you take (and keep) are just a few of the doors that will be opened when you have your degree in hand.Youll be more empowered as an agent in your own life. Youll be better educated about the things that have an impact on your day-to-day existence: knowing how to read a lease, having an understanding of how the markets will influence your retirement accounts, and handling the finances of your family. A college education can empower you in all kinds of ways to be more in control of your lifes logistics.Youll be better able to weather adversity. From having more money available (see #1 in this list!) in a savings account to having marketable skills and an education during an economic downturn, having a degree can come in handy when life throws you a curve. Youll always be marketable. Having a college degree is becoming increasingly important in the job market. Consequently, having a degree now will open doors for the future, which will in turn open more doors and make you more marketable later ... and the cycle continues. Intangible Reasons to Get a College Degree Youll lead a more examined life. The critical thinking and reasoning skills you learn in college will stay with you for a lifetime.You can be an agent of change for others. Many social service positions, from doctor and lawyer to teacher and scientist, require a college degree (if not a graduate degree). Being able to help others means you have to educate yourself to do so through your time in school.Youll have more access to resources. In addition to the financial resources, youll have access to through your higher income, youll also have resources in all kinds of unexpected and intangible ways. Your roommate from freshman year who is now an attorney, your friend from chemistry class who is now a doctor, and the person you met at the alumni mixer who may offer you a job next week are the kinds of benefits and resources that are hard to plan for but that can make all the difference in the world.Youll have future opportunities in ways you may not be considering now. When you graduate from college, you may have never even given a second thought to graduate school. But as you get older, you may unexpectedly develop a strong interest in medicine, law, or education. Having that undergraduate degree already under your belt will allow you to pursue your dreams once you realize where they are going. Youll have a strong sense of pride and self. You may be the first person in your family to graduate from college or you may come from a long line of graduates. Either way, knowing you earned your degree will undoubtedly give a lifetime of pride to yourself, your family, and your friends.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Written Training Module Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Written Training Module - Assignment Example After that it aims to provide them a small lecture through powerpoint on the importance of time and methods of time management. The students will then apply these concepts in their group activities, and will then be evaluated by the rest of the participants, thereby learning best time utilization practices. Students often complain of too many things demanding attention for their time, with very less time left to relax or rest. This translates into stress and reduced work performance in all areas of life, leading to an overall decrease in the quality of life. This then leads to students feeling bad about themselves, or inadequate to manage things in the appropriate manner. Time management and learning the importance of time are the key elements that distinguish the successful students from the less successful ones. The training aims to highlight some of the key areas in successful time management. Organizing things in life is not only a way to keep one’s room clean but also a need to keep the mind at rest. An organized system around a person allows for clarity of thought and action. It helps the person focus on one thing at a time, and in this way ensure that that particular area of life receives full focus. The topic was decided primarily due to a large proportion of students stating that they do not know how to balance the different elements of their life in an appropriate manner. For this reason, it was thought that a good way to teach time management skills would be to educate them in a non-traditional classroom format. For this reason, the use of powerpoint which would the primary source of instruction was complemented by other aids. The initial test would be a good starting point to gain student attention, and the initial and after the training evaluation of the test by the student himself would allow him to see how and

Friday, October 18, 2019

Salary and benefits of becoming a financial manager Essay

Salary and benefits of becoming a financial manager - Essay Example nagers is customarily expected to rise based on their expertise in various specialties ranging from strategic planning, financial analysis, forecasting and financial modelling. Consequently, financial managers are expected to take home an annual income averaging at about $83,000 to 130,000 after a being on the job for a duration of about ten years. According to input from, financial managers not only take home attractive wages, but similarly smile to the bank due to the direct and indirect benefits that they take home. In highlighting some of the direct benefits that come with the job, precisely reports, â€Å"Average Finance Managers in the United States make around $83K per year. Individual bonuses, profit sharing and commission for Finance Managers — as high as $19K, $13K and $87K, respectively† (Pay Scale). Apart from the benefits highlighted, the managers indirectly benefit from other remunerations like medical coverage for entitled family members, as well as a perfect savings plan, which ensures that their retirement is well catered for (US News). Novack, Janet. 6 Pointed Questions to Ask Before Hiring a Financial Advisor. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from:

Street art in Berlin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Street art in Berlin - Essay Example At the time, graffiti artists among other citizens took to the wall on both sides using the wall to criticize the erection of the wall with every artist striving to communicate specific messages. Such messages as â€Å"Death to tyrants†, â€Å"God Ble$$† and â€Å"Concrete makes you happy,† conveyed the opinions of the people regarding the separation of Germany into two. While street arts were illegal at the time, the graffiti artists among others enhanced the artistic criticism of the society at the time thereby contributing to the demolition of the wall. Germans did not like the wall since it split their country simply to serve political interests. West Germans used their side of the wall to express their disgust with the wall and so did the Eastern Germans. Streets arts, as exhibited on the Berlin wall, became an integral culture in Germany. In the 1970s, streets artists sought to make Berlin their Mecca. They devised new mechanisms of developing systematic gr affiti with paint cans being among the most favorable. Key among the targeted platform for the streets artists were the communist property (Schürer 101). The defaced such property in a defiant attitude. The artists expressed their displeasure with the prevailing political developments while expressing their desired developments. The areas around the wall of Berlin consisted of dilapidated streets, abandoned buildings and piles of rubles, which the street artists took over splashing defiantly yet creative criticism of the society.

Conservation and Management of the Environment Case Study - 5

Conservation and Management of the Environment - Case Study Example On the other hand, her employer Carl Damon is not strongly into environmentalism. He gets excited and hopes that Jacquie would create awareness about the entire thing across the organization’s employees. Jacquie Lipscomb’s interest was in the prevention of pollution which dated back to her school days. She used to track everything that happened to all the papers and came up with a recycling program that was implemented in the entire school. Thus, Jacquie was really encouraged by the company’s interest in conserving the environment. She got accustomed to all the operations at KTI and educated herself of all the outputs from the manufacturing procedures and designed ways through which the firm could reduce the release of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Her work at KTI was remarkable and Carl, her boss, was really impressed with her performance at work. After about a year, Jacquie realized that the company has been selling its wastes to another company which never disposed of the wastes properly. This made her approach her boss for clarification. To her surprise, Carl disclosed how the implementation of environmental approaches made the firm’s interest to diminish. In addition, his response was clear that the strategies Jacquie had put in place were never supported. Jacquie felt deceived and wondered if the management is transparent with every operation in the company. Jacquie has all the reasons to feel or rather conclude that Carl deceived her. Deceit has been a problem in companies for years. Thus, to cope with such situations in organizations, there are a number of actions that one should take. These actions are meant to make a person deal with the management which has lost its sight of vision and reality and failed to implement the strategies that are worth to the company, employees, environment and the entire society. To start with, pinpointing the reason why managers sometimes lie is extremely crucial.  

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Operating System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Operating System - Essay Example (e.g. for a system call). This mechanism is used to prevent programming mistakes with system resources. It also shares common system resources in an appropriate manner under OS control. It prevents accessibility to protected memory segments. It also identifies instructions that can cause error conditions and inconsistent system state. Memory location of interrupt handler that signifies interrupts and also will save them in a queue if multiple interrupts are in processing, is called interrupt vector. The interrupt vector is a matrix of pointers to specific interrupt-handling routines. A hardware part that is called the device controller along with any device makes up the computer system. The device controllers basically acts as an interface between the device and the OS of that computer. Device controllers is also responsible of transferring data from other devices that controls it and the local buffers. To store and execute necessary commands in device controller, registers and buffers are integrated in the device controller. To provide interface between a device controller and OS, there is a device driver in OS that presents a steady interface into the device. First the device driver is introduced in to the OS to which the device is to be connected and then User and the system can exchange data with help of device through the device itself. In multiprocessor, two copies of the same data may reside in the local cache of each CPU. If one of the CPU changes the data, the Caches of the other cache coherency includes. Storing the data in multiple caches signifies one of the best ways of storing data. In this kind of shared memory, there is different cache memory for each of the processors. It is possible that many copies of one direction operand would exist on multiple caches that would exist on different processors. If one copy is changed, all the copies that are present on the other

Comment 3 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Comment 3 - Assignment Example The work gives much attention to concepts that govern appropriate data collection. It can also be noticed that the author has indicated the two main types of research as either qualitative or quantitative. The supportive facts used to strengthen the viewpoint of the author in respect of using effective communication in data collection are convincing. This is in respect of the common knowledge that oral interview or questionnaires tend to be successful on sound communication skills and proper structure. Observation as a method of data collection has also been given significant focus in regard to the need for total involvement by the researcher (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson, 2012). Adoption of a particular methodology on choice of method for data collection and analysis serves to estimate sample population and match the objective of the study. The flow of ideas from introduction on data collection, methodology and conclusion that tackles hypothesis sheds much light on research methods to a layman. This makes this work stand out is representative of the widely used research study

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Conservation and Management of the Environment Case Study - 5

Conservation and Management of the Environment - Case Study Example On the other hand, her employer Carl Damon is not strongly into environmentalism. He gets excited and hopes that Jacquie would create awareness about the entire thing across the organization’s employees. Jacquie Lipscomb’s interest was in the prevention of pollution which dated back to her school days. She used to track everything that happened to all the papers and came up with a recycling program that was implemented in the entire school. Thus, Jacquie was really encouraged by the company’s interest in conserving the environment. She got accustomed to all the operations at KTI and educated herself of all the outputs from the manufacturing procedures and designed ways through which the firm could reduce the release of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Her work at KTI was remarkable and Carl, her boss, was really impressed with her performance at work. After about a year, Jacquie realized that the company has been selling its wastes to another company which never disposed of the wastes properly. This made her approach her boss for clarification. To her surprise, Carl disclosed how the implementation of environmental approaches made the firm’s interest to diminish. In addition, his response was clear that the strategies Jacquie had put in place were never supported. Jacquie felt deceived and wondered if the management is transparent with every operation in the company. Jacquie has all the reasons to feel or rather conclude that Carl deceived her. Deceit has been a problem in companies for years. Thus, to cope with such situations in organizations, there are a number of actions that one should take. These actions are meant to make a person deal with the management which has lost its sight of vision and reality and failed to implement the strategies that are worth to the company, employees, environment and the entire society. To start with, pinpointing the reason why managers sometimes lie is extremely crucial.  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Comment 3 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Comment 3 - Assignment Example The work gives much attention to concepts that govern appropriate data collection. It can also be noticed that the author has indicated the two main types of research as either qualitative or quantitative. The supportive facts used to strengthen the viewpoint of the author in respect of using effective communication in data collection are convincing. This is in respect of the common knowledge that oral interview or questionnaires tend to be successful on sound communication skills and proper structure. Observation as a method of data collection has also been given significant focus in regard to the need for total involvement by the researcher (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson, 2012). Adoption of a particular methodology on choice of method for data collection and analysis serves to estimate sample population and match the objective of the study. The flow of ideas from introduction on data collection, methodology and conclusion that tackles hypothesis sheds much light on research methods to a layman. This makes this work stand out is representative of the widely used research study

Roles of an Hr Manager Essay Example for Free

Roles of an Hr Manager Essay The administrative roles of human resource management include policy formulation and implementation, housekeeping, records maintenance, welfare administration, legal compliance etc. i. Policy maker: The human resource manager helps management in the formation of policies governing talent acquisition and retention, wage and salary administration, welfare activities, personnel records, working conditions etc. He also helps in interpreting personnel policies in an appropriate manner. ii. Administrative expert: The administrative role of an HR manager is heavily oriented to processing and record keeping. Maintaining employee files, and HR related databases, processing employee benefit claims, answering queries regarding leave, transport and medical facilities, submitting required reports to regulatory agencies are examples of the administrative nature of HR management. These activities must be performed efficiently and effectively to meet changing requirements of employees, customers and the government. iii. Advisor: It is said that personnel management is not a line responsibility but a staff function. The personnel manager performs his functions by advising, suggesting, counseling and helping the line managers in discharging their responsibilities relating to grievance redressal, conflict resolution, employee selection and training. Personnel advice includes preparation of reports, communication of guidelines for the interpretation and implementation of policies, providing information regarding labor laws etc. iv. Housekeeper: The administrative roles of a personnel manager in managing the show include recruiting, pre-employment testing, reference checking, employee surveys, time keeping, wage and salary administration, benefits and pension administration, wellness programmes, maintenance of records etc. v. Counselor: The personnel manager discusses various problems of the employees relating to work, career, their supervisors, colleagues, health, family, financial, social, etc. and advises them on minimizing and overcoming problems, if any. vi. Welfare officer: Personnel manager is expected to be the Welfare Officer of the company. As a Welfare officer he provides and maintains (on behalf of the company) canteens, hospitals, creches, educational institutes, clubs, libraries, conveyance facilities, co-operative credit societies and consumer stores. Under the Factories Act, Welfare officers are expected to take care of safety, health and welfare of employees. The HR managers are often asked to oversee if everything is in line with the company legislation and stipulation. vii. Legal consultant: Personnel manager plays a role of grievance handling, settling of disputes, handling disciplinary cases, doing collective bargaining, enabling the process of joint consultation, interpretation and implementation of various labor laws, contacting lawyers regarding court cases, filing suits in labor courts, industrial tribunals, civil courts and the like. In some organizations, the above administrative functions are being outsourced to external providers in recent times, with a view to increasing efficiency as also cutting operational costs. Technology is being put to good use to automate many of the administrative tasks. Operational Roles These roles are tactical in nature and include recruiting, training and developing employees; coordinating HR activities with the actions of managers and supervisors throughout the organization and resolving differences between employees. i. Recruiter: â€Å"Winning the war for talent† has become an important job of HR managers in recent times in view of the growing competition for people possessing requisite knowledge, skills and experience. HR managers have to use their experience to good effect while laying down lucrative career paths to new recruits without, increasing the financial burden to the company. ii. Trainer developer, motivator: Apart from talent acquisition, talent retention is also important. To this end, HR managers have to find skill deficiencies from time to time, offer meaningful training opportunities, and bring out the latent potential of people through intrinsic and extrinsic rewards which are valued by employees. iii. Coordinator/linking pin: The HR manager is often deputed to act as a linking pin between various divisions/departments of an organization. The whole exercise is meant to develop rapport with divisional heads, using PR and communication skills of HR executives to the maximum possible extent. iv. Mediator: The personnel manager acts as a mediator in case of friction between two employees, groups of employees, superiors and subordinates and employees and management with the sole objective of maintaining industrial harmony. v. Employee champion: HR managers have traditionally been viewed as ‘company morale officers’ or employee advocates. Liberalisation, privatisation and globalization pressures have changed the situation dramatically HR professionals have had to move closer to the hearts of employees in their own self interest. To deliver results they are now seriously preoccupied with: l Placing people on the right job. l Charting a suitable career path for each employee. l Rewarding creditable performance. l Resolving differences between employees and groups smoothly. l Adopting family-friendly policies. l Ensuring fair and equitable treatment to all people regardless of their background. l Striking a happy balance between the employees personal/professional as also the larger organisational needs. l Representing workers’ issues, problems and concerns to the management in order to deliver effective results HR managers have to treat their employees as valuable assets. Such an approach helps to ensure that HR practices and principles are in sync with the organisation’s overall strategy. It forces the organisation to invest in its best employees and ensure that performance standards are not compromised. Strategic Roles An organisation’s success increasingly depends on the knowledge, skills and abilities of its employees, particularly as they help establish a set of core competencies (activities that the firm performs especially well when compared to its competitors and through which the firm adds value to its goods and services over a long period of time, e.g. ONGC s oil exploration capabilities and Dells ability to deliver low cost, high-quality computers at an amazing speed) that distinguish an organisation from its competitors. When employees’ talents are valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and organised, a firm can achieve sustained competitive advantage through its people. The strategic role of HR management focuses attention on how to enable ordinary employees to turn out extraordinary performance, taking care of their ever-changing expectations. The key areas of attention in this era of global competition include effective management of key Resources (employees, technology, work processes), while delivering cost effective, valueenhancing solution.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Airline Organization In Malaysia Commerce Essay

The Airline Organization In Malaysia Commerce Essay This essay reviews and examines the management operations in organizations, using the airline organization in Malaysia; Air Asia as our case study. In assessing or reading this essay, one will definitely come across certain terminologies which are not frequently used and not suitably applicable to our everyday lives, and therefore one may find it difficult to absorb and concur the real point of the essay. Such terminologies may include work organization, management, unemployment, management operations Etc. This concerns a part of the business or organization operations whereby they try to increase or maximize customer satisfaction by using the minimum amount of resources possible, e.g. in the case of an organization like Air Asia, they have being ranked as one of the top low-cost airlines world-wide. Their Low-price compared to other Airlines helps in motivating people to opt for Air Asia over others. Thereby, they increase the customer satisfaction while the try to expend the list amount of resources possible for this to be economically efficient for the organization. 2. Motivation is like an action which triggers or helps in the activation of a kind of behavior which is set for higher standards (goal-oriented behavior). When a manager motivates his/her workers, it is usually in most cases with the aim of achieving a higher set of goals for the organization. This motivation may take place under various circumstances and also in a variety of formalities, which include; Increasing Job satisfaction of the employees This can be achieved through things like increasing the workers salaries, upgrading their working conditions, better benefits and pension allowances and so on and so forth. First of all, a goal is an objective which a person intends to achieve in most cases, within a stipulated amount of time. Goals are set for various purposes. For example, some people set goals and then intend to strive to achieve that it within a stated period of time. The limited acts a form of motivation and pushes them to strive harder in achieving the goal. One of the most notable of the methods of goal settings is the SMART plan. SMART represents; Specific; The goals should be specified for easy rectification. Measurable; They should be quantifiable not uncertain. Attainable; They should be things that can be reached or attained within the stated period of time. Realistic; They should be somewhat as a fantasy or a dream but should be achievable. Time-line; There should be a stipulated period of time within which one should be able to achieve the goal. 3. CONFLICT RESOLUTION Conflict is a state of opposition between persons, ideas or interest. Whenever we want to work with people conflict is inevitable because we all come from different background, culture generation and we all have different believes and value. Each of us brings with us different views on about everything WAYS OF MANAGING CONFLICT 1 Accommodating: This is whereby you allow the other party to certify there consign and neglect your own 2 Collaborating: This means cooperating with the other party to understand there consign and effort to find a mutually satisfying solution. 3. Compromising: Attempting to resolve conflict by identifying solution that is partially satisfactory to both parties both completely satisfactory to neither. 4. Avoiding: Not paying attention to the conflict and not taking any action to resolve it. 5. Forcing: using your formal authority to satisfy your own consign without regard to the other parties consign WAYS OF RESOLVING CONFLICT 1. Arbitration: This is process whereby a third party is involved who has being invited by the conflict parties to propose the solution 2.Seek Mediation : Is a process whereby a third party consults with those involved in a conflict to see if the problem can be presenting in a way which facilitates a resolution, the mediator may simply listen and ask questions 3. Apply authority or force: If mediation, conciliation and arbitration do not work or the parties are not willing to try them, conflict can be resolved in a fashion by one party imposing his solution through authority.(I.e. Manager) this settlement will resentment amongst the workers at the receiving end both sometimes this is the only way to resolve conflict and save time. 4. Organizational structure depicts how jobs and official endeavors are formally broken down, grouped and carried out cord natively. Here are the types of organization structures; Simple Structure This is more commonly associated with smaller business such as the sole proprietorship and others like that. This is because; it is more functional when applied in an organizational setting with few workers. It is fast and flexible and also relatively cheaply applicable. Its major demerit involves the fact that it is relatively unsuccessful with other organizations with a larger workforce. Bureaucracy It is mainly characterized by a strong standardization technique such as highly formalized rules, strong hierarchal system and chain of command. The Matrix Structure This is departmentalized into 2; functional and product. The most outstanding and easily recognized structural feature of the matrix is that it breaks the unity-of-command concept. How people are managed Directing making decisions embodying decision in instruction and serving as the leader of the enterprise Organizing establishing structures and system through which activities are arranged Planning out ling the policy, objectives and resultant things to be accomplished. Time management is the process of monitoring, analysing and revising, you plan unit it work, effectively planning as a skill that takes time to acquire. Prepare tomorrow s schedule before you get to the office in morning Coordinating this is important stage consists of interacting the various part of work .it involves coordinating the various job, roles and responsibilities of yourself and others staff. 5. The Internet, especially that of the 21st Century is super-fast, has a very high flexibility and can be used for the efficient conduction of all kinds of transactions that goes on between suppliers, consumers and even multinational companies. These characteristics of the internet enable it to bring heavy positive returns to these organizations. For example, things like purchase orders, transportation of goods notifications, requisition letters Etc. which were initially sent and received through post-mail can now be accessed online via electronic mail through the internet. A customer-oriented organization, favors and elevates the customer above other things, it believes that the customer is always right. A production-oriented organization focuses mainly on production as their primary driving force and that is their top priority. 6. LEADERSHIP Leadership is the power to influence a meeting towards the success of destination. MANAGEMENT Management is the functions of authority underlying in assigned formal rate to receive compliance from organizational members. People should be managed using a type of management method known as Management by consensus. Consensus as we all know has to do with mutual agreement involving everyone therefore, management by consensus is a type of management whereby everyones opinion is taken in for consideration and then a decision is taken based on everybodys consensus. This helps in giving people a feeling of importance and also gives them a role to play. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP Autocratic leadership Bureaucratic leadership Democratic leadership Cultural leadership Strategic leadership Situational leadership Participative leadership TYPES OF MANAGEMENT Management by information system Management by organizational development Management by exception Management by walking around Management by performance Management by consensus Management by decision models COMPARE AND CONTRAST VARIOUS TYPES OF MANAGEMENT AND VARIOUS STYLES OF LEADERSHIP -THAT TRANSLATES INTO THE WAYS PEOPLE ARE MANAGED. Widening their network looking for mutual benefit or helping others selflessly. An appraisal system using performance indicators and objectives as the basis of appraisal. Information control keeping people informed about issues which affect them. Possessing good negotiating skills aiming for win/win outcomes Resources control allocated on the basis of business priority. Job seniority giving clear instruction for tasks . Having and ability to get people to communicate by offering confidential support Giving personal praise on the basis of good performance Involving others welcoming and utilising others ideas Managing access to people on the basis of need and business priority . Rewards and punishment using fairly and transparently based on an objective criteria. 7 Group entails any number of persons who interrelate with one another, who are mentally conscious of one another and recognize themselves as a group (Mullins, L.J. 2005). While teams denote groups that have familiar objective and identify that their individual achievement is hanged on the others. A group consists of all kinds of persons. The way individuals interact and interrelate shapes their success. The manners in which persons behave in groups differ. Some individuals are helpful and supportive, others are more worried about getting the task done, and yet others can initiate friction or dissonance inside the team. Managing a project team has various parts. One of the most vital is organizing and setting up that project team. If one makes the right decisions when organizing his/her project team, he/she will be steps away from achieving the group project. Make a list of the tasks that required to be completed to make the project a achievement. If you arent certain exactly what wants to be done to complete the task, now is the moment to go to your manager and get that explained. Step 2 Place a timeline for your task. If you have not been given a cut-off date, then you will require to put one, cum any erstwhile landmark inside the task. You will also want to set timelines for the responsibilities inside the mission, making certain that you are finishing the tasks in chronological command. Step 3 Locate the inputs that you want to make your task occur. Ensure that you will have entrance to any apparatus you want to compose your task an actuality. You have to converse this as soon as achievable with administration so you will have all that you want by the moment the task is ready to commence. Step 4 Generate a catalogue of responsibilities that you will want to fill inside your group. For example, you may want two sales persons and a marketing supervisor to produce your team. Again, each of the responsibilities, catalogue the tasks that this individual will be working on during the task. Step 5 Decide who in your business will labour best on your mission team given the responsibilities that you want to fill and the tasks that must be completed. Get the best individuals on board with you, keeping in mind who works well together when your team form. Step 6 Converse the arrangement amid your project team as soon as feasible. This is the last step in institute of a flourishing project team. Ensure each individual recognizes what they will do independently and what the team is trying to achieve as a whole.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Another Hamlet :: essays research papers

The real question is Hamlet crazy or is he just acting it. In my opinion there are many things throughout the play that make me tend to believe that he is crazy. When Hamlet enters Opheliu's room and she has the question if he is truly mad or if he is just acting. Hamlet is proven o be crazy in this play and statements and actions he days and does are the thing that prove this. There are many things that make me tend to beleive that Hamlet is crazy. There are also many things that he does that does not want to make you think that he is crazy but for others to think this of him it just make me want to beleive even more that he is crazy. One of the things that shows that he is crazy is that he contemplates suicide or as Hamlet says "self slaughter", this is definately a true act of pure craziness. Hamlet also wants to believe that he see's this ghost of his father that is odd because when he is in the room with his mother he starts to talk to the ghost and the mother does not see it. Also when he walked into Ophelius's room he just stood there staring at her for a long time and no normal person does this. This is just another example of one of the examples that proves that Hamlet is crazy. Hamlet also has a lot of evil in him like when he killed Polomius for no reason when he was behind the curtains in his moms room. Also when he see's his Uncle Claudius praying he is deciding whether or not it is a good idea to kill him. These are just other examples how I think that he is crazy. Another importnt thing to show that he is crazy is that he has no fear like when he started to follow his father apparation even when Horatio said don't go because it could be dangerous. He also does things that are very odd and random like when Ophelius and him were wathcing the play he just put his head in her lap and started mumbling about nothing. Hamlets image has also got very scrubby by the way he dresses and the way he looks. Ophelius said that when she saw him she was scared. These are all examples about why I think that

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Blue Crabs :: essays research papers

The scientific name given to the blue crab was derived from Latin and Greek: Calli, beautiful; nectes, swimmer; and sapidus, savory. Thus, a literal transition might be the beautiful savory swimmer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The blue crab is an important and interesting species. The blue crab is a species whose life history involves a complex cycle of planktonic, nektonic, and benthic stages which occur throughout the marine environment in a variety of habitats. The blue crab is one of the more abundant estuarine invertebrates and supports important commercial and recreational fisheries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The blue crab plays an important role in the marine food web, providing prey for many species and a predator on other species. The blue crab is a highly prized commodity to consumers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Eight species of Callinectes have been documented in the Gulf of Mexico: C. bocourti, C. danae, C. ornatus, C. exasperatus, C. marginatus, C. similis and C. rathbunae, and Callinectes sapidus.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The original range of the blue crab is from Nova Scotia and throughout the Gulf of Mexico to northern Argentina. The blue crab is rarely found north of Cape Cod, but has been recorded in Maine and Nova Scotia. The blue crab has been introduced into Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. Introductions into the Mediterranean Sea and surrounding waters have produced breeding populations whereas others were probably temporary occurrences. The blue crab also has been introduced into Japan.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Blue crabs are one of the most common marine invertebrates and are generally abundant throughout the oceans. Peak abundance of adult crabs occurs during the warmer months. During winter, crabs are found in areas of tidal exchange in the lower estuary. Juvenile blue crabs are most abundant in waters of low to intermediate salinity during the winter months.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Males become sexually mature at the 18 or 19th molt but may continue to grow and molt an additional 3-4 times thereafter. Female crabs were initially thought to rarely, if ever, molt again following their mature molt. However, mature females undergoing a second molt have been verified.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Human Nature: a Contested Concept Essay

Are we inherently good or bad? Are we driven by reason or emotions? Are we selfish or altruistic? Is the human mind malleable or predisposed? These questions are highly contested and the answers to them far from clear. This is due not only to the array of different perspectives on human nature, but also to seemingly contradictory evidence. We need only scratch the surface of history to find confirmation that humankind is capable of incredible cruelty and violence. In Ancient Rome, for example, entertainment was provided by forcing people to fight animals and other human beings – often to the death. If this seems barbaric in the extreme, we thankfully also find tales of tremendous bravery and what would seem to be altruism. Today, unsung heroes risk their lives every day to save those of complete strangers. In short, the picture is a mixed one: â€Å"We seem to be part angel, part demon, part rational, part animal, capable of great glory and great tragedy†. 1 Indeed, the notion that human beings are part angel, part demon echoes Aristotle’s (384-322 BCE) conclusion that he who is content with his solitude must be â€Å"Either a beast or a God†. 2 Whether we are by nature good or bad is a central question in the debate on human nature. Philosophical as well as religious and spiritual traditions have answered the question in different ways. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) believed that humankind is driven by the passions or instincts linked to self-preservation. 3 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), by contrast, argued that human beings are by nature good and that any vices that they may have are attributable to the corrupting influence of society. What makes human beings distinctly â€Å"human† is their capacity for reason. In the Old Testament, humankind is portrayed as created in the image of God and, thus, inherently good. However, both Jews and Christians are in agreement that human beings fell from grace by failing to refrain from eating from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which left them adrift, alienated from God and in need of salvation. 4 12 NAYEF R. F. AL-RODHAN Another question that recurs in discussions about human nature is whether we are driven by emotions or rational thought. A major concern here is whether reason plays a role in our moral judgements. If so, do we engage in conscious reasoning before pronouncing a judgement or after the fact? David Hume (1711-1776) was the first modern philosopher to argue that we make moral judgements on the basis of emotional responses to situations or scenarios. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) held a different opinion. He argued that we make moral judgements through a process of conscious reasoning. 5 In Kant’s view, the evolution of humanity had followed a progression from being motivated by animal instincts to being driven by reason. For Aristotle, too, human beings are capable of living a â€Å"good† life by employing reason. Plato (427-347 BCE) held that human beings are driven by both passion and reason. How can we reconcile these seemingly contradictory faculties? Those who place greater emphasis on passion and survival instincts, such as fear, greed and sympathy, regard our biological heritage as more important than the environment in which we grow up, whereas those who give greater priority to our capacity for reason tend to attribute greater significance to culture and education or innate capacity – those things in the social world that shape the way we think and behave. Whether we are primarily motivated by basic survival instincts or by the environment is central to conflicting views on the question of free will and determinism. The question of how free humanity is to change its nature appears time and again in discussions. According to John Locke (1632-1704), people are free to conduct themselves in accordance with the laws of nature. In this view, nurture is more important than nature in shaping our behaviour. As is mentioned above, Plato occupied the middle ground. While human beings were believed to be the product of their biological heritage, the environment was thought to play a predominant role in influencing behaviour. Existentialists, such as Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) argued that human beings have a radical free will – according to Sartre, â€Å"Man is condemned to be free†. 6 At the other end of the spectrum, Hobbes holds that it is nature that is the driving force. 7 Others would argue, however, that although we may feel as though we are endowed with free will, this is illusory. Proponents of this position argue that because our desires and reactions are not always something that we can control, we cannot be considered truly free. Sigmund Freud’s (1856- EMOTIONAL AMORAL EGOISM 13 1939) theory of pansexuality holds, for instance, that while people may think that they are making conscious choices, they are driven by subconscious motives. 8 Sociobiologists, such as, for example, E. O. Wilson regard human beings as products of evolution. 9 This distinction is important: if we are radically free to choose, we ought to be fully aware of what we are doing. However, if our genetic heritage shapes our mind and behaviour we ought to take this into consideration. 10 How we answer the above questions determines how we answer whether humankind is capable of moral behaviour. In this context, moral behaviour is defined as behaviour consistent with a system of rules of correct conduct. Does true altruism exist or is all altruism based on self-interest? According to Hobbes, human beings are egoists, incapable of acting altruistically. This view would appear to be consistent with situations such as a mugging that takes place in broad daylight where bystanders look on but fail to intervene. This fundamental question has elicited different responses. For Kant, morality is the result of reason. Evolutionary approaches to human psychology and behaviour provide a very different answer. Altruism presents the Darwinian theory of natural selection with a problem, given that this theory is premised on the pressures of competition. Acts of altruism would appear to have no obvious advantage. Prairie dogs, for example, warn others of approaching danger by calling to them, thereby alerting a predator to their own presence and placing themselves at greater risk. 11 How is it possible to watch on television a group of young men being rounded up and summarily shot in the back of the head and take no direct action to bring genocide to a halt? Some sociobiologists, such as Wilson and Frans de Waal, argue that morality has developed from our social instincts. 12 Some evolutionary psychologists, such as Marc Hauser, have gone so far as to argue that human beings have evolved an innate moral instinct. 13 This is interesting because it suggests that some basic moral criteria must be universal across divergent cultures. Yet, it also raises the question of whether, or the extent to which, human beings are deliberating moral agents. 14 1. 1. The Structure and Aims of the Book This book sets out to do two things: first, it strives to reach an understanding of human nature, which ultimately offers the promise of liv- 14 NAYEF R. F. AL-RODHAN ing a â€Å"good† life. Specifically, I ask the following questions: What motivates humankind? What is humankind capable of under certain circumstances? Do human beings possess an innate morality? In so doing, I engage with common points of reference in the debate on human nature. Drawing on insights from philosophy, psychology, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology, I put forward a more comprehensive view of human nature. However, discussions of human nature would be incomplete without considering the findings of neuroscience. I therefore use recent research in this rapidly developing field to go beyond the approaches to human nature in the above disciplines. Second, this book explores some of the global and security implications of human nature as I conceive it. The way in which we approach security issues inevitably contains assumptions about what motivates human beings in particular circumstances, and how we attempt to address these issues is circumscribed by those assumptions. It is essential that we get these assumptions right. The cost of getting them wrong is paid in lives. I therefore set out some ways in which we might better facilitate political and moral cooperation, based on our present knowledge of the neuro-psychological impact of our neurochemistry. In order to set the context for my own theory and to give the reader a sense of the main conceptions that influence thinking on the question of what makes us what we are, we begin by exploring some major theories of human nature. The book first sets out the main approaches to human nature. I refer to theories of human nature in a broad sense that includes philosophical, religious and spiritual, psychological and evolutionary approaches. Here, the main contours of the debate on human nature – are human beings good or bad, driven by passion or reason, constrained or radically free, moral or immoral – are addressed in greater detail. I then present my own theory of human nature, which I call â€Å"Emotional Amoral Egoism†. I argue that the human mind is not a tabula rasa, or a clean slate, as Locke suggested. Instead, the human mind is what I call a predisposed tabula rasa, with predilections stemming from its genetic make-up that later will be influenced by the environment. Humankind’s genetic make-up is essentially a code for survival. Survival instincts are emotionally based and neurochemically mediated. I therefore take issue with those who argue that human beings are primarily motivated by reason. This does not, however, mean EMOTIONAL AMORAL EGOISM 15 that we should favour nature over nurture in the nature/nurture debate, or that we should conceive of human beings as prisoners of their passions. Even though we are in part motivated by our basic survival instincts, our environment – which broadly comprises our personal state of affairs, upbringing, education, and societal, cultural and global state of affairs – plays an important role in shaping our psyche and behaviour. Moreover, what distinguishes humankind from other species is our capacity for reason. We are therefore driven by both basic survival instincts and rational thought, although, alas, less frequently by the latter than we might like to imagine. As is indicated, whether human beings are inherently selfish or capable of altruism is hotly contested. In my view, humankind is neither always moral nor always immoral, but can be either at different times. Human nature is governed by general self-interest and affected by genetic predisposition, which implies that there are likely to be limits to our moral sensitivities. In my view, altruism is in the final analysis driven by survival motives that are emotionally based. In this sense, my approach supports Hume’s thesis. Recent neuroscientific findings confirm that we are primarily driven by our emotions rather than reason. Yet, since the human psyche and human behaviour are also the product of the environment, under the right circumstances and with deliberate effort, we are capable of acting morally, beyond the margins of what our genetic coding has primed us for. In addition to considering who we are, I also briefly consider where we are going. Here, I look at how we can and are likely to be able to modify our psychological and physiological profile through biological and technological means. At some point in the future, we may have to deal with â€Å"the line between the human as a product of nature and the human as a fabrication of technology†. 15 Not surprisingly, this has generated heated debate. â€Å"What distinguishes modern technology from all other types, both pre-modern and non-Western, is its exclusive focus on the perfection of technical procedures and processes that had historically been subordinate to technological norms and standards, usually of a moral, political, and religious nature. †16 Will technological advances alter what it means to be human? Box 1 provides a summary of my general theory of human nature, â€Å"Emotional Amoral Egoism,† and briefly outlines some of its universal security implications. 16 NAYEF R. F. AL-RODHAN Box 1 Summary of â€Å"Emotional Amoral Egoism†: A Neurophilosophical Theory of Human Nature and its Universal Security Implications The enduring assumption that human behaviour is governed by innate morality and reason is at odds with the persistence of human deprivation, inequality, injustice, misery, brutality and conflict. In my theory of human nature, which I have termed â€Å"Emotional Amoral Egoism†, I argue that human behaviour is governed primarily by emotional self-interest focused initially on survival and, once achieved, domination. These facets of human nature are a product of genetically coded survival instincts modified by the totality of our environment and expressed as neurochemically-mediated emotions and actions. Reason, reflection and conscious morality are comparatively rare. The human mind is therefore a predisposed tabula rasa, resulting from both an in-built genetic code for survival and the environment. In my view, most human beings are innately neither moral nor immoral but rather amoral. They are driven by emotional self-interest and have the potential to be either moral or immoral, depending on what their self-interest dictates, and will be influenced in their choices by emotions and socio-cultural contexts. Circumstances will determine the survival value of humankind’s moral compass in that being highly moral in an immoral environment may be detrimental to one’s survival and vice versa. Indeed, our neuronal architecture is pre-programmed to seek gratification and â€Å"feel good† regardless of the reason. All apparently altruistic behaviour serves self-interest at some level. This insight has profound implications for the re-ordering of governance mechanisms at all levels with a strong emphasis on the role of society and the global system in maximising the benefits of what I term measured self-interest, while minimising its excesses, because human beings cannot be left to their own devices to do the â€Å"right thing†. Such reform offers the best chance of facilitating political and moral cooperation through the establishment of stringent normative frameworks and governance structures, that best fulfil the potential of human beings to exist and evolve in peace, security, prosperity and possible serenity. Further, humanity must never be complacent about the virtues of human nature. Therefore, everything must be done at all levels to prevent EMOTIONAL AMORAL EGOISM 17 Box 1 continued alienation, inequality, deprivation, fear, injustice, anarchy and the loss of the rule of law. History has shown repeatedly that humankind is capable of unthinkable brutality and injustice. This is often a result of what I call fear(survival)-induced pre-emptive aggression, which may occur no matter how calm the situation appears, although it is not necessarily inevitable. Moreover, where there is injustice that is perceived as posing a threat to survival, humankind will do whatever necessary to survive and be free. In such instances, â€Å"might† (military or otherwise) may not prevail or be the optimal solution. Human nature as we know it is, nevertheless, malleable and â€Å"manageable†. It may be radically modified as a result of advances in bio-, molecular, nano- and computational technologies. It will therefore be essential to establish a clear code of ethics regulating the use of these technologies sooner rather than later. In 5 to 5. 6, I discuss some of the global and security implications of my theory of human nature. This final part of the book first explores how prominent approaches to International Relations (IR) conceive of human nature and then outlines how my own theory may be situated in relation to them. I explain that my proposed general theory of human nature collapses the nature/nurture and free will/constrained dichotomies that tend to characterise the conceptions of human nature that inform major IR theories. I then discuss the relevance of my own conception of human nature to a number of issues: identity construction and globalisation, xenophobia and ethnocentrism, ethnic conflict, moral cosmopolitanism and governance structures. In the era of globalisation, the transnationalisation of production and finance, as well as the development and spread of new technologies, have helped to bring about changes in collective identities and inter-civilisational relations. There is a growing discrepancy between major collective identities and traditional political and cultural boundaries. 17 Since a main driver of human behaviour is ego – understood as that which negotiates between inner needs and social contexts, making humankind require a positive identity and a sense of belonging – this development has a number of implications. If ego may be considered to be a basic human need,18 then cultural disorientation is likely to negatively affect the human condi- 18 NAYEF R. F. AL-RODHAN tion and human security at various levels. While wide-reaching cultural change as part of globalisation is having positive effects in terms of increased exposure to and awareness of other cultures, as well as better access to knowledge, thereby bringing about a greater degree of interconnectedness, the cultural dimension of globalisation is sometimes perceived as generating cultural homogenisation. In the latter case, people may feel that their traditional culture is in danger of being eroded. Since fear is another central and very powerful driver of human behaviour, responses may take the form of intolerance, xenophobia and extremism. It is therefore important to view the needs for belonging and a positive identity as basic human needs, and to develop appropriate policies and institutional structures to ensure that these needs are met. At the state level, for instance, this means promoting an inclusive society that is underpinned by institutions that make effective representation possible. Globalising processes are also affecting and politicising intercivilisational relations. The increased dispersion of people from diverse cultural contexts, instant connectivity due to new technologies, and the existence of economic and political inequalities mean that issues can be transnationalised more easily than in the past. Some issues may be perceived as an act of aggression against collective identities that define themselves as part of a broader civilisation. This can cause inter-civilisational tension and provide ammunition for those who wish to exploit such fears for their own purposes. Changes in the global political and economic environment in the past few decades have also resulted in new waves of migration as people seek employment and greater opportunities outside their home country. In some regions of the world, the presence of newcomers has generated negative reactions from some factions in society. Exposure to negative stereotyping in the mass media, for example, may increase public support for policies targeted at minority groups in societies and for discrimination against them, which may be subtle or involve physical violence. In Europe, migration has been securitised (i. e. , raised to the level of a security issue) since the mid-1980s, when migration became subsumed in a broader security continuum including other issues such as terrorism and transnational organised crime. The securitisation of migration is sometimes accompanied by xenophobia. Those exposed to xenophobia suffer from a reduction in security and do not enjoy a positive identity, at least in terms of the way in which EMOTIONAL AMORAL EGOISM 19 others define them. This means that a basic human need goes unmet, again with potentially avoidable consequences. 19 Understanding the central dimensions of human nature may contribute to responses to migration that do not feed xenophobic reactions in society. Both the environment and our genetic coding are implicated in xenophobic reactions. Evolutionary approaches to human nature would attribute xenophobia to how we evolved from our ancestors. The argument is that human beings, like animals, have a tendency to be hostile towards strangers. Some argue that xenophobia may be something that people have developed to protect themselves against transmittable disease. A stranger might also represent a threat to a place or hierarchy and, therefore, be treated with hostility and suspicion. In both instances, fear of strangers may allow individuals and groups to thrive genetically. While the emphasis here is on genetics, culture is nonetheless recognised as influencing this genetic predisposition. 20 If we are better equipped to comprehend the drivers of human nature, we might also stand a better chance of preventing and alleviating conflict. Ethnic conflict, for example, is often perceived as the result of timeless hatreds. Viewed in this way, there is little that can be done to alleviate its causes. Preventing ethnic conflict from occurring may seem an impossible task. Thus, considering purely biological factors in a narrow way limits the degree of the possible. While humankind may be weighed down by its biological heritage, and we should not dismiss this out of hand, the environment has an important impact on the human psyche and human behaviour. Fortunately, we are capable of influencing the environment and, therefore, conflict. If we recognise that both our genetic predilections and the environment affect how and whether tension degenerates into violent conflict, we may be able to develop policies to prevent this from happening. A better understanding of human nature may also help humankind to promote cooperation and moral behaviour at the global level. For centuries, politics has been shaped by the concept of state sovereignty, and allegiance to the political unit of the state has been shaped by nationalism. Today, however, national borders are more porous and, for many people, allegiances are not limited to the state. Globalisation is creating a â€Å"transnational social space†. 21 Increased human mobility and interconnectedness mean that many people have to negotiate between multiple identities. The global society that is emerging is composed of great diversity and greater inequality, which 20 NAYEF R. F. AL-RODHAN makes mutual recognition and respect imperative. Moreover, international norms have evolved in such a way that requires moral cosmopolitanism, which assumes that individuals belong to a single moral community. Yet, all too often, there appears to be a disparity between the moral principles we have developed and what we actually do. Biologically inherited behavioural traits may play a role in explaining this apparent gap. 22 We need to find a normative arrangement that will better equip us to address together political, socio-economic and cultural issues. One of the difficulties that evolutionary theories highlight is the difficulty that we may have in acting morally towards â€Å"distant others†. This is by no means to suggest that we wish to justify people’s indifference to difference or the challenges to acting altruistically towards others with whom they have no direct contact. Culture may be able to cultivate a more altruistic attitude towards strangers, which is essential if we are to respect the dignity of others. If, as sociobiologists suggest, there may be limits to our moral sensitivities, then it is important to know about this because it will require a deliberate effort to promote moral cosmopolitanism, rather than assuming that we can rely on individuals to behave in an ethical way. We need to find a common basis on which we can cooperate. Since the human brain is quite malleable, public policies and governance structures can influence the human condition and, as a result, the likelihood of insecurity and instability. What kind of governance structure would be required to enable humanity to prosper and to enhance global stability? Since our survival instincts inform a great deal of our behaviour, it is essential that people’s human rights are vigorously upheld. While there is a general consensus that human beings should not be subjected to torture or degrading treatment, basic human rights ought to extend to basic needs such as shelter and food. This means that human security, which is defined as the freedom from want and fear, ought to be promoted at all levels. Political processes and structures should be inclusive. Multilateral institutions, for example, ought to be more representative so that the evolution of the global order is the result of an inclusive and collective effort. Chapter 6 offers some concluding thoughts on the implications of â€Å"Emotional Amoral Egoism† and makes some policy recommendations based on my general theory of human nature and my specific theory of human motivation contained therein. Some may object to the claims that I make in the text. They may, for a variety of reasons (i. e. , upbringing, experience, education) EMOTIONAL AMORAL EGOISM 21 see themselves or others as more rational, or more moral than my conception of human nature allows. However, my theory is intended to apply to the majority of human beings, not the minority. I have also kept the discussion of neuroscientific and philosophical issues general in order to avoid overwhelming the reader with technical detail and nomenclatures.